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Russian History Mindmap
Transcript of Russian History Mindmap
Russian Revolution (March 1917)
Russian Revolution (November 1918)
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War consisted of the Red (Bolsheviks) and the Whites (anti-Bolsheviks). The Whites were made up of several anti-Communists and called on the West for help. The Civil War caused extensive damage to Russia, extreme violence were committed by both sides. However, the Reds won because of Trotsky's strong leader as commissar. The Whites were unorganized men who were not fighting out of passion, and most importantly, were not unified in their goal.
In 1917, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate because revolution had become inevitable. The war had proved that Russia was not fit for combat, as there were thousands of casualties due to untrained and unequipped soldiers. Furthermore, the war had caused a great collapse in the economy and peasantry was an ever-growing issue that needed to be dealt with.
Since the Tsar was overthrown, a Provisional Government was put in place. Between March and October 1917, the Provisional Government had been reorganized four times and it continually failed to solve Russia's problems with peasants, land, famine and the economy.
The Petrograd Soviet
The Petrograd Soviet was the unofficial leader of Russia. They passed a clause declaring that the military only obey them, rather than the Provisional Government. The Petrograd Soviet held the greater authority.
By November, the Bolsheviks, lead by Vladimir Lenin, were placed in power and they overtook the Mensheviks. Their platform that won the nation was peace, land and bread. They occupied all government buildings and other important buildings .
New Economic Policy
Vladimir Lenin installed the New Economic Policy after the War Communism Policy. The War Communism Policy brought the economy to a total breakdown as it had a policy of extreme centralization. The New Economic Policy reintroduced money, and allowed the peasants to own and cultivate their own land.
Who was Stalin?
Josef Stalin was a peasant born on December 18, 1878. He started studying Marxism when he was in University, and became a political activist, taking interest in the Russian Revolution. Stalin later joined the military wing of the Bolshevik party under Lenin.
Five Year Plan
Josef Stalin climbed up the party ladder and eventually took control after Lenin died in 1924. Almost immediately, Stalin issued the Five Year Plan which was designed to turn Russia from a peasant country into an industrial superpower. He forced farmers into agreeing to a collectivization of all agriculture farms, and if farmers were to object, they were shot. His other main focus was the production of iron and steel, machine-tools, electric power and transport. He set unrealistic goals to attain, for example, a 110% increase in coal production, 200% increase in iron production and 335% increase in electric power. He pressured the workers into complying by claiming Russia needed to protect herself from capitalist countries.
Stalin was a leader who ruled by terror. The forced collectivization of farms caused a famine that killed millions. If a worker did not work hard enough to meet his unrealistic goals, they were accused of trying to sabotage his Five Year Plan and were shot. Civilians were encouraged to spy on each other. Stalin also instituted the Great Terror by killing anyone he thought was a threat to his power. Stalin built a cult of personality by editing history textbooks and the national anthem, renaming cities in his honour, and making himself the subject of all media.
World War Two
Stalin turned the tide of World War Two in the Battle of Stalingrad where the Red Army destroyed the German forces who were making an advance into Russia. For the most part, Russia allied with the Allies in defeating the Axis powers, all the while ocupping many states and fueling his dream of expanding the Soviet Empire. Although the Soviet and Allies worked together during World War Two, a long period known as the Cold War emerged from the Soviet's communist expansion.