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Copy of Alcohols Introduction

AS OCR chemistry 1st alcohols lesson with LO's, interactive questions and notes
by

David Shaw

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Alcohols Introduction

By the end of this lesson you should be able to...
Explain the properties of alcohols;
Describe the production of alcohol by fermentation;
Describe the uses of alcohols;
Classify alcohols;
Describe the combustion of alcohols.

+
O
2
ALCOHOLS
Using the wipe boards please .....
What functional group is ‘alcohol’?
How do we name them? i.e the suffix
we use and how we identify the position
What alcohol do some people choose to consume?

What happens if you drink the other alcohols?
Time for some notes ....

Alcohols are another homologous series (raising by CH2).
They have the general formula Cn H2n+1 OH.
They have the functional group - OH
This is an hydroxyl group and we name this with -ol on the end of the name
They have positional isomerism and we number the -ol with the number of the carbon hydoxyl group appears on.


What is hydrogen bonding?
What do we need to make it happen?
Note time again . . .

Alcohols have an electronegative oxygen atom and so are polar. Therefore they can take part in Hydrogen bonding.
Is this IMF strong or weak?
This means that alcohol molecules have much stronger IMF's than the equivalent alkanes, for example, methanol boils at 64.7 degrees while methane boils at -88.6.

Alcohols can also mix with water as they are polar and also partake in H bonding. Remember 'like dissolves like'.
So how do we make alcohols?
Alcohol is produced by fermentation of sugars and has been for thousands of years.

We use the sugar from fruit or grains and mix it with yeast and water to produce ethanol and other compounds.
Industrially sugar cane and molasses (a product of refining sugar cane) or starch can be used for fermentation.

The product is around 15% ethanol by volume and does not exceed this as the yeast is denatured by the ethanol.

We can use distillation to remove most of the water and produce higher percentage alcohol.
We can also make alcohols in a lab
from alkenes.
Using Elecrophilic Addition we can add
STEAM (water) across a double bond ....
Write down this mechanism of steam and propene to remind yourself.
Include all steps, curly arrows and mention what, and how, major and minor products are formed.

When you're done, "great, now help your mate!"
Combustion of alcohols - whoosh bottle.
Products for combustion of alcohols are the same as for alkanes.
We just have to balance it differently.

propanol + oxygen

C3H7OH + XO2
3CO2 + 4H2O
Denatured Alcohols

Denatured alcohol has been made toxic by addition of other chemicals to make it undrinkable.
Traditionally this was methanol and formed methylated spirits (meths) 90% ethanol and 10% methanol.

Denatured alcohols are often used as portable fuels for camping stoves and does not need specialised transport. It is also used as a lab solvent.
ACTIVITY

In pairs using the molymods I want you to imagine and make what primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols would look like.

Hint:
Think back to carbocations and how they looked.

when your done, get them check by me then in your book make notes on the structures to include:
sketetal formula
displayed formula
structural formula
name.

Finally, by your selves, create a di- or tri- alcohol using molymods.
Have your partner draw it, name it and identify each alcohol as primary, secondary or tertiary.

Made by James Walton,
Teacher and alcohol enthusiast.
C6H12O6 --> 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
(yeast catalyst)

conditions - yeast catalyst, no oxygen, heat.
We also add methanol to petrol to help with combustion and use it to make other organic chemicals.
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