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Marzano's Nine in the 21st Century
Transcript of Marzano's Nine in the 21st Century
in the 21st Century Technology alone won't transform education. To inspire students educators have to integrate technology into teaching and learning. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Setting objectives is the process of establishing a direction to guide learning. •Connect learning objectives to previous and future learning •Engage students in setting personal learning objectives. Tools to use for
Setting Objectives Providing feedback that is corrective, timely, and focused on criteria, along with involving students in the process, creates a classroom environment that supports learning. Recommendations for Providing Feedback •Provide feedback that addresses what is correct and elaborates on what students need to do next. •Provide feedback appropriately in time to meet students’ needs. •Provide feedback that is criterion referenced. •Engage students in the feedback process. Tools for Providing Feedback Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Recommendations for Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition •Teach students about the relationship between effort and achievement. •Provide students with explicit guidance about exactly what it means to expend effort. •Promote a mastery goal orientation. •Use concrete symbols of recognition Tools for Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning focuses on having students interact with each other in groups in ways that enhance their learning. Learning can be maximized through well-designed, intentional social interaction with others (Gerlach, 1994; Vygotsky, 1978). As Thomas Friedman notes in The World Is Flat (2005), we are "living in a time when learning and innovation are increasingly global". Recommendations for Cooperative Learning •Include elements of both positive interdependence and individual accountability. •Keep group size small. •Use cooperative learning consistently and systematically. Tools for Cooperative Learning Delicious Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers focus on enhancing students’ ability to retrieve, use, and organize information about a topic. (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001). Recommendations for using Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers •Focus on what is important. •Use explicit Cues. •Ask inferential questions. •Ask analytical questions. •Use expository and narrative
advance organizers. •Use skimming as an advance
organizer. Tools for Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers •Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive. Recommendations for Setting Objectives •Communicate learning objectives to students and parents. Reinforcing Effort enhances students’ understanding of the relationship between effort and achievement by addressing their attitudes and beliefs about learning. Nonlinguistic Representations Nonlinguistic Representations enhance students’ ability to use mental images to represent and elaborate on knowledge. The ultimate goal for this strategy is to produce nonlinguistic representations in the minds of students so they are better able to process, organize and retrieve information from memory (Marzano, Pickerings, & Pollock, 2001). Recommendations for Nonlinguistic Representations •Use graphic organizers •Make physical models or manipulatives •Generate mental pictures •Create pictures, illustrations, pictographs •Engage in kinesthetic activities. Tools for Nonlinguistic Representations Summarizing and Notetaking Summarizing and Note Taking focuses on enhancing students’ ability to synthesize information and distill it into a concise new form. Recommendations for Summarizing and Note Taking. •Teach students the rule-based summarizing strategy •Provide opportunities for students to revise their notes and use them for review. •Teach students a variety of note-taking forms Evernote Infinote Tools for Summarizing
and Notetaking Wordle Assigning Homework and Providing Practice Assigning Homework and Providing Practice gives students a chance to review and apply what they have learned. Recommendations for using Homework and Providing Practice •Develop and communicate a district or school homework policy •Design homework assignments that support academic learning and
communicate their purpose. •Provide feedback on assigned homework. •Clearly identify and communicate the purpose of practice activities. •Design practice sessions that are short, focused and distributed over time. •Provide feedback on practice sessions Tools for Homework and Providing Practice Hurricane Strike Identifying Similarities and Differences Identifying Similarities and Differences in the content they are learning helps them to structure their understanding of the content. During the process, they make new connections, experience fresh insights and correct misconceptions. Recommendations for Identifying Similarities and Differences •Teach students a variety of ways to identify similarities and differences. •Guide students as they engage in the process of identifying similarities and differences. •Provide supporting cues to help students identify similarities and differences. Tools for Identifying Similarities and Differences Generating and Testing Hypotheses Generating and Testing Hypotheses they are engaging in complex mental processes, applying content knowledge like facts and vocabulary, and enhancing their overall understanding of the content. Recommendations for Generating and Testing Hypotheses •Engage students in a variety of structured tasks for generating and testing hypotheses. •Ask students to explain their hypotheses or predictions and their conclusions Tools For Generating and Testing Hypotheses If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our children of tomorrow.
- John Dewey