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Copy of Prezi: The Zooming Presentation Software

Ideas Matter

arnel diaz

on 1 August 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Prezi: The Zooming Presentation Software

Milena Flament

Chapter I
Most Used
Develops Faster
Key to Speaking

Listening should be stressed before speaking because recognition knowledge is required to process and decode the
aural input, .

Cognitive Listening Strategies
Peter Diamandis
Part II
Peter Duffin
Bernadette Martin
Julie Vetter
Cognitive Listening Strategies
Response Mode
Scoring Mode
Part III
Listening is the very first language skill to develop, followed in order by speaking, reading, and writing. However, the skill of listening had been neglected in the second language literature until recently.
The neglect of the listening skill was accompanied with an ongoing debate about which of the four language skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing, is the most crucial for the learning and acquisition of a second language.
Are a group of strategies that deals with problem-solving techniques that learners use to handle the learning tasks and facilitate the acquisition of knowledge or skill.
Language learners use cognitive strategies to help them process, store and recall new information
Additionally, cognitive strategies help learners listen for the gist, activate background knowledge, and make predictions and inferences
(Morley, 2001; Rost, 2001)
(Oxford, 1990)
(Dunkel, 1986)

Language learning is more efficient when learners are not immediately required to speak and are only required to listen to the language.
This early emphasis on listening is efficient because learners are exposed only to good models of the language (the teacher and realistic recordings).

Learners feel
embarrassed and
sometimes discouraged
when they are forced to
make early oral
production. When this
pressure does not exist,
learners can relax and
stay focused on developing the listening skill,
which helps the emergence of the other 3
language skills. Since listening leads to
earlier achievement and success,
learners are more motivated
to continue learning.
Statement of the
1. How may the respondents’ cognitive listening strategies be described in terms of the following listening contexts:
1.1 Academic context;
1.3 Informal context?
2. What is the performance of the respondents in the listening test based on the above cited contexts?
1.2 Authentic context;
3. Is there a significant relationship
between the respondents’ cognitive
listening strategies and their profile
variables in terms of:
3.1 sex
3.2 age
3.3 highest educational attainment
3.4 dialect spoken at home
4. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’ cognitive listening strategies and listening performance?
5. Is there a significant relationship
between the respondents’ listening
performance and profile variables?
6. How may the cognitive listening strategies
and listening performance be compared when grouped according to the respondents’ profile variables?
1. There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ cognitive listening strategies and their profile variables in terms of:
a. sex;
b. age;
c. highest educational attainment; and
d. dialect spoken at home.
2. There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ cognitive listening strategies and listening performance.
3. There is no significant relationship between the respondents’ listening performance and profile variables.

of the
(Derry & Murphy, 1986)
(Goh, 1998)
(Hinkel, 2006)
cognitive strategies is the most common type of strategies used by language learners
(O’Malley, 1989 and Bacon, 1992a, 1992b)
The most powerful predictor of listening comprehension
(Abdalhamid, 2012)
Cognitive Listening
Bottom up Top down
Bottom-up strategies include word-for- word translation, adjusting the rate of speech, repeating the oral text, and focusing on prosodic features of the text.
Top-down strategies, include finding the main idea, predicting, inferencing, elaborating and visualization.
Main idea
the listener’s ability to locate the theme first
and details later on
the listener’s capacity to create meaning by applying his/ her knowledge of words from the target language to sentences.
(prior knowledge)
(Linguistic Knowledge)
The Problem

Listening Context
Academic Context
Aural inputs containing academic contexts are specially designed for learning purposes and are useful for teaching grammar. The language used in them is artificial, containing well formed sentences all the time.
Authentic Context
These aural inputs are produced by native speakers for a non-pedagogical purpose. Researchers encourage the use of materials containing authentic context over pedagogically designed materials because they present a whole, genuine, and realistic approach to the language and culture.
Informal Context
Aural inputs that involve listening as a component of social interaction which plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development.
(Adams, 1995; Miller, 2003)
(Bacon, 1992; Bacon & Finneman, 1990; Joiner, Adkins, & Eykyn, 1989; Raphan, 1996)
(Bacon, 1989), Richards (1983)
Cognitive Listening
1. Main Idea Identification
2. Translation
Profile Variables
1. Age
2. Sex
3. Highest Educational
4. Dialect Spoken at Home
Listening Performance
1. Academic Context
2. Authentic Context
3. Informal Context

of the
200 Students
English Proficiency
July - December, 2013
Profile Variables
Highest Educational Attainment
Dialect Spoken at Home
Cognitive Listening Strategy
Main Idea Identification
of the
Educational Administrators
The results of the study may be useful in determining what aspect of English language and literature teaching needs the most attention for an in-service training for teachers in teaching English as a second language
Curriculum Specialists
This would help them set learning experiences aiming to build and strengthen the learning competencies and learning activities of students and teachers, so the learners may be catered the necessary skills they need to learn to become proficient.
Through this research endeavor, the teachers who are the direct and dynamic implementers of the academic programs may give second language learners sufficient, meaningful and empirical bases in teaching Second Language Acquisition.
As living agents of any educative process, this study may provide students better ways and means to be able to cope up with anxiety and difficulty in learning English as a second language.
They will have a clear path of providing the necessary educational resources for their children to develop love and appreciation for listening and view it in a positive light.
As a learning process specialist and contributor, he would be able to determine the factors, and issues to be considered in listening comprehension in relation to second language learning, and from this point of view, he can set realistic and meaningful goals and recognize students’ learning needs.
Chapter III
Research Methodology
The descriptive method of research will be used in this study since it involves description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of condition that exists. It will likewise attempt to discover the relationship between the existing non-manipulated variables and thereby involves to a certain degree, in some type of comparison and contrast of the data that will be gathered.
(Manuel and Medel, 1998)
Method of Research

Research Locale
The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) Regional Language Skills Institute (LSI) commenced its operations simultaneously in all the 11 sites nationwide on the English Proficiency Program on November 19, 2007. TESDA Region III is one of the 11 regional sites to start operations at the TESDA LSI in Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija.

The language training is free and provided by TESDA, through the PGMA-Training for Work Scholarship Project (TWSP). The LSI, established by TESDA, is a network of 35 National/Regional Institutes in the country that provides language skills training to competent and qualified Filipinos intending to work locally and overseas. It offers workplace language skills training in English, Arabic, Korean, Mandarin, Nihongo and Spanish for job-ready workers.
Part I
Profile Form
This form consists of items aimed at drawing the profile of the respondents’ sex, age, highest educational attainment, and spoken dialect at home.
Listening Performance
This test is adapted from Randall Davis’ ESL Cyber Listening Lab, an online self-study guide which helps students studying English as a Second Language to improve their English listening comprehension skills.
Cognitive Listening Strategies Survey Questionnaire
Scale Verbal Description
5 Always
4 Often
3 Sometime
2 Seldom
1 Never

Performance Test
The respondents will be presented with questions based on the listening situation heard. Multiple choice type items will be provided from where the respondents would select their answers.
Scale Verbal Description

4.20-5.0 Always
3.40-4.19 Often
2.60-3.39 Sometimes
1.80-2.59 Seldom
1.0-1.79 Never
Scale Verbal Description

37-45 Highly Attentive
28-36 Attentive
19-27 Moderately Attentive
10-18 Inattentive
0-9 Highly Inattentive
Cognitive Listening Strategies
Listening Performance Test
Statistical Analysis
1. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentage, and weighted mean will be used to treat responses from these two instruments – The Cognitive Listening Strategies and the Listening Performance Test. These statistical tools will be used for problems 1 and 2.
2. To test the significant relationship between the respondents’ cognitive listening strategies and their profile variables, Point Biserial and Pearson Product Moment Correlation will be used.
3. Likewise, Pearson Product Moment Correlation will be used in finding the significant relationship between the respondents’ Listening Performance and profile variables; and between the Cognitive Listening Strategies and Listening Performance of the respondents.
4. In comparing the Cognitive Listening Strategies and Listening Performance of the respondents when grouped according to profile variable of sex, T-test will be used; as for all other variables, Analysis of Variance will be used.
and its

a majority of the respondents enrolled in the English Proficiency Program at TESDA LSI were females who comprised 77.50% versus that of the males at 22.50%.

a major fraction of the respondents fall between the ages of 21 to 30 years old.
44% of the total number of respondents hold a bachelor’s degree
Tagalog speakers dominate the total number of respondents, comprising 89.00%, as opposed to those who speak Visaya (1.50%), and Ilocano (9.00%).
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