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Chapter 5 The Periodic Table
Transcript of Chapter 5 The Periodic Table
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Dmitri Mendeleev 1834-1907 Russian Chemist who studied the properties of the elements and looked for patterns among the properties
He found that if the elements were listed by atomic mass, certain properties appeared at certain intervals
Mendeleev was able to predict new elements
Mendeleev left spaces in his table to make the pattern fit.
He used the spaces to successfully predict the existence and properties of elements not yet discovered
A few elements did not fit the pattern.
Henry Moseley 1887-1915 About 40 years after Mendeleeev published his table, Moseley arranged the elements by atomic number
Arranging the table by atomic number (number of protons) rather than by atomic mass fixed the discrepancies in Mendeleev’s table.
periodic law: the law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements
Period: a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
Elements become less metallic across each period.
Group: a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties
Elements in a group have similar properties.
The Periodic Table Sec 2: Exploring the Periodic Table Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass Protons Electrons Protons Neutrons The Role of Electrons The periodic trends in the periodic table are the result of electron arrangement.
The periodic trends in the periodic table are the result of electron arrangement.
An element’s location in the periodic table is related to electron arrangement.
The chemical properties of each group are largely determined by the number of valence electrons (outer shell) Ion Formation If an atom gains or loses electrons, it no longer has an equal number of electrons and protons. Because the charges do not cancel completely, the atom has a net electric charge.
Ion - an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a positive or negative charge Group 1 elements form positive ions.
The single valence electron is easily removed.
Group 17 elements form negative ions.
The addition of one valence electron fills the outer energy level.
Ions All atoms want to have a full outer shell
Magic Number: 8
Exception: Helium (He) with 2 How are elements classified? All elements are either metals, nonmetals, or semiconductors (metalloids). (Insulator) Sec 3: Families of elements Sometimes, one or more groups in the periodic table are categorized as being members of a unit called a family. Classifying Elements further The elements in a family have the same number of valence electrons Metals Alkali Metals Elements of Group 1 on the periodic table
VERY Reactive (will ignite on contact with water)
Only one electron in their outer shell; they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements
Ion would have +1 charge Alkaline-Earth Metals Elements of Group 2 on the Periodic Table
Less reactive than Alkali but still really reactive
Two electrons in their outer shell; ready to lose the two electrons in ionic bonding
Ion would have a +2 charge Transition Metals valence electrons, or the electrons they use to combine with other elements, are present in more than one shell Valence electrons are present in more than one shell
Each element can form several different Ions with a positive charge Nonmetals Noble Gasses Elements of Group 18 on the Periodic Table
They are inert, or unreactive, because their outer shell is full. In general, they do not form ions or compounds.
Halogens Elements of Group 17 on the Periodic Table
All halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells making them ready to gain 1 or share 1 electron in bonding
Ions would have a -1 charge
Halogen means 'salt-former' Semiconductors Also called metalloids
As their name suggests, semiconductors are able to conduct heat and electricity under certain conditions Other Nonmetals Nonmetals and their compounds are plentiful on Earth
Ions of nonmetals have a negative charge