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CfE H Geography - Global Issues: Development & Health Revision
Transcript of CfE H Geography - Global Issues: Development & Health Revision
the use of resources
and technology to bring about an increase in the standard of living within a country.
eradicating the mosquito
Any improvement that is
made in the standard of living of the people in a country is called development.
This is an additional tool to assist with revision after looking through your notes, books and past papers. It is not a replacement for the above!
Single indicators of development
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita
Average Annual Income per capita
% of population employed in manufacturing
adult literacy rates (%)
average life expectancy at birth
infant mortality rates per 1000 live births
number of cars/TV sets/telephones etc per 1000 people.
The Problem with single indicators
They are too broad/generalised as they are averages. i.e. they hide differences within a country. e.g. Saudi Arabia's high GDP due to oil wealth owned by a minority.
Other problems could be: north/south divide, rural/urban, male/female, racial and tribal. Statistics may be unreliable. Difficulty in collecting data from censuses. Many births and deaths go unrecorded. How do you really measure real quality of life/happiness?
Composite indicators of development
PQLI uses Life expectancy, Infant mortality and Adult literacy. You need to know what each of these is.
In order to get a more balanced picture, the use of Composite indicators is recommended. Such as PQLI (Physical Quality of life index) or HDI (Human Development index).
HDI uses Life expectancy, Educational attainment and Purchasing power of a country. Again you need to know what
each of these is.
You must be able to describe the above and comment on the usefulness of each indicator
Exam Questions about development
You may be asked to explain the differences 'between' countries and also 'within' countries. It is vitally important that you understand what the question is asking when it uses these terms.
Differences between countries
You need to mention that the rate of development varies. NIC’s (The Asian Tigers) e.g. Singapore, has NOT been exploited. It has a great communications by sea allowing imports and exports. It also has entrepreneurship, which has allowed people to develop. Countries also choose to set up business here because they have no minimum wage and no trade unions. In other cases countries can be exploited for their natural resources,
NAME CASE STUDIES!
Differences within countries
Differences also occur within a country. Huge variations are often hidden as development indicators relate to the whole country and are averages.
Our case study was Brazil - make sure you know
this and can confidently write about the differences within Brazil for the exam. Think about different regions/population, agricultural regions, relief
Reasons for differences in health
Limited access to running water/dirty water and inadequate sanitation
Inadequate health care – doctors, clinics, lack of education about disease
Poor Diet – resulting in starvation/malnutrition = vulnerability to disease
Lack of contraception/family planning = large families - need more food/water
Famines caused through civil wars, population growth rates or natural disasters e.g. droughts
Living in very poor, overcrowded conditions e.g. shanty towns.
For Malaria you must be able to:
describe the environmental and human factors which put people at risk of contracting the disease
describe and evaluate the methods used to control the spread of the disease
Explain the benefits to a country of eradicating the disease
• nearby settlements to provide a ‘blood reservoir’
• areas of bad sanitation, poor irrigation or drainage
• exposure of bare skin.
• suitable breeding habitat for the female anopheles mosquito – areas of stagnant water such as irrigation channels, water barrels, puddles etc
• hot wet climates such as those experienced in the tropical rainforests or monsoon areas of the world
• temperatures of between 15°C and 40°C
• areas of shade in which the mosquito can digest human blood.
insecticides eg DDT – however this is environmentally harmful – impacts on the
food chain and is supposed to be banned as a result. Also, mosquitoes are building up
a resistance to chemical insecticides and are becoming less effective
newer insecticides such as Malathion – these are oil-based and so more expensive/difficult for ELDCs to afford
mustard seed ‘bombing’ – become wet and sticky and drag mosquito larvae under the water drowning them
egg-white sprayed on water – suffocates larvae by clogging up their breathing tubes (as with mustard seeds – wasteful, costly and fairly impractical)
BTI bacteria grown in coconuts. Fermented coconuts are, after a few days, broken open and thrown into mosquito-infested ponds. The larvae eat the bacteria and have their stomach linings destroyed! Cheap, eco-friendly and 2/3 coconuts will control a
typical pond for up to 45 days.
larvae eating fish – effective and a useful additional source of protein
in people’s diets
drainage of swamps – requires much effort –
not always practicable in the Tropics.
treating those suffering
drugs: - Chloroquin – easy to use/cheap but mosquitoes
are developing a resistance to it. Others may have harmful side
effects - Malarone – fairly new drug – said to be 98% effective –
few side effects but very expensive
vaccines – still being developed/not yet in widespread use
education programmes: - insect repellent, cover skin at dusk when
mosquitoes are most ravenous, sleep under treated mosquito nets –
No one solution has been found. A combination of strategies/control
methods, combined with increasing public awareness/education programmes
(eg WHO’s ‘Roll Back Malaria’ – campaign aimed at halving the number
of malaria cases by 2010) will be needed just to keep
malaria in check. Some progress may be made thanks to the
millions which the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
has set aside for research into a cure.
Benefits of controlling
it to developing countries
funds can be diverted elsewhere in the Health sector or transferred to other budgets that help development
the workforce will be fitter (e.g. farmers better able to produce food), thus also helping to raise health levels
productivity will increase as the workforce takes less time off due to illness/life expectancy increases
the area will become more attractive to tourists, foreign currency income can be generated and this will also assist in developing tourism related services/industries
a possible reduction in birth rates as a result of
a fall in infant mortality rates.
national debt can be reduced
PHC is the provision of first line care and
is concerned with:
Affordable practical care
Low technology care
Holistic care involving education and
use of barefoot doctors – trusted local people who can carry out
treatment for more common illnesses – sometimes using cheaper traditional remedies
use of ORT (Oral Rehydration Therapy) to tackle dehydration – especially amongst
babies. This is an easy, cheap and effective remedy for diarrhoea/dehydration
provision of vaccination programmes against diseases such as polio, measles, cholera.
PHC is based on generally preventative medicine rather than (more expensive) curative medicine
the development of health education schemes in schools, community plays/songs concerning AIDS, with groups of expectant mothers or women in relation to diet and hygiene. Oral education being much more effective in illiterate societies
sometimes these initiatives are backed by the building of small local health centres staffed by doctors (like GPs)
PHC can also involve the building of small scale clean water supplies and toilets/pit latrines – often with community participation
The use of local labour and building materials is often cheaper, it also provides training/transferable skills for the participants and gains faster
acceptance/usage in the local and wider community.