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CfE H Geography - Global Issues: Development & Health Revision
Transcript of CfE H Geography - Global Issues: Development & Health Revision
the use of resources
and technology to bring about an increase in the standard of living within a country.
Methods of eradicating the mosquito
Any improvement that is
made in the standard of living of the people in a country is called development.
This is an additional tool to assist with revision after looking through your notes, books and past papers. It is not a replacement for the above!
Single indicators of development
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita
Average Annual Income per capita
% of population employed in manufacturing
adult literacy rates (%)
average life expectancy at birth
infant mortality rates per 1000 live births
number of cars/TV sets/telephones etc per 1000 people.
The Problem with single indicators
Single indicators, such as GDP, are averages which can hide extremes within a country such as a rich minority and a poor majority e.g. Saudi Arabia's high GDP due to oil wealth owned by a minority. Development is not only about money, other aspects of development like literacy and healthcare are also important. Composite indicators such as HDI give a more rounded picture; by combining a number of indicators.
Other problems could be: north/south divide, rural/urban, male/female, racial and tribal. Statistics may be unreliable. Difficulty in collecting data from censuses. Many births and deaths go unrecorded. How do you really measure real quality of life/happiness?
Composite indicators of development
PQLI uses Life expectancy, Infant mortality and Adult literacy. You need to know what each of these is.
In order to get a more balanced picture, the use of Composite indicators is recommended. Such as PQLI (Physical Quality of life index) or HDI (Human Development index).
HDI uses Life expectancy, Educational attainment and Purchasing power of a country. Again you need to know what
each of these is.
You must be able to describe the above and comment on the usefulness of each indicator
Differences 'between' countries
Some countries e.g. Saudi Arabia have natural resources such
as oil, which can be sold to generate foreign currency. Countries like
Chad are landlocked, are find it more expensive to export and import goods. Countries with a poor education system have many low skilled workers and are unable to attract foreign investment. Countries with fertile soils and a suitable climate can grow cash crops which can be sold for income. Corruption in government such as in Nigeria can lead to money being used inappropriately. Where countries suffer from conflict or civil war e.g. Syria they are unable to keep the economy working and spend extra finance on weapons. Countries which have accumulated large debts have to repay
loans and interest causing less money for services. Famine can
lead to malnutrition, and a reduced capacity to work and
NAME CASE STUDIES!
Reasons for differences in health
Limited access to running water/dirty water and inadequate sanitation
Inadequate health care – doctors, clinics, lack of education about disease
Poor Diet – resulting in starvation/malnutrition = vulnerability to disease
Lack of contraception/family planning = large families - need more food/water
Famines caused through civil wars, population growth rates or natural disasters e.g. droughts
Living in very poor, overcrowded conditions e.g. shanty towns.
For Malaria you must be able to:
describe the physical/environmental and human factors which put people at risk of contracting the disease
explain the methods used to try and control the spread of the disease; and
evaluate the effectiveness of these methods.
Explain the benefits to a country of eradicating the disease
Increased poverty had led to settlements being located closer to marshland and swamp areas providing a ‘blood reservoir’.
Areas with poor drainage and/or bad sanitation or irrigation
Exposure of bare skin particularly at dawn and dusk when mosquitoes are most active.
Hot, wet climates such as those experienced in the tropical rainforests or monsoon areas of the world with temperatures of between 15°C and 40°C, which allow mosquitoes to survive.
Areas of shade in which the mosquito can digest human blood.
Suitable breeding habitat for the female anopheles mosquito—areas of stagnant water such as reservoirs, ponds, irrigation channels.
Presence of the female anopheles mosquito.
One method used was to spray pesticides/insecticides e.g. DDT in an attempt to kill the female Anopheles mosquitoes which spread the disease.
Breeding genetically modified sterile male mosquitoes (or mosquitoes unable to carry the parasite or mosquitoes which give birth to predominantly male offspring) were also attempts to reduce the numbers of female mosquitoes.
Another method was to use specially designed mosquito traps, which mimic animals and humans by emitting a small amount of carbon dioxide in order to lure the mosquitoes into the trap where they are killed.
BTI bacteria artificially grown in coconuts – the fermented coconuts are broken open after a few days and thrown into the mosquito larvae-infested ponds. The larvae eat the bacteria and have their stomach lining destroyed.
Putting larvae-eating fish, such as the muddy loach, into stagnant ponds or padi fields can also help to reduce the larvae as the fish eat the larvae.
Flushing reservoirs and draining stagnant ponds or swamps every seven days as it takes longer than this period of time for the larvae to develop into adult mosquitoes.
Planting eucalyptus trees can help soak up excess moisture and reduce the amount of stagnant water.
Covering standing water and water storage cans (e.g. the Oxfam Bucket) reduces the chances of mosquitoes breeding there.
Benefits of controlling
it to developing countries
funds can be diverted elsewhere in the Health sector or transferred to other budgets that help development
the workforce will be fitter (e.g. farmers better able to produce food), thus also helping to raise health levels
productivity will increase as the workforce takes less time off due to illness/life expectancy increases
the area will become more attractive to tourists, foreign currency income can be generated and this will also assist in developing tourism related services/industries
a possible reduction in birth rates as a result of
a fall in infant mortality rates.
national debt can be reduced
Physical / Environmental Factors
Measures taken to treat those suffering from Malaria include:
Drugs such as Quinine / Chloroquine / Larium / Malarone / Artemisia were all developed in an attempt to kill the parasite or prevent infection.
Trials have produced a vaccine (RTS,S) which has now been recommended as being safe for use, as prevention is better than cure.
Measures taken to prevent people being bitten by the mosquito:
Education programmes such as the WHO’s “Roll Back Malaria” campaign. In particular educating people in the use of Insect repellents.
Covering the skin at dawn/dusk when mosquitoes are most active to reduce the chances of being bitten.
The increased use of insecticide-coated mosquito nets at night was an attempt to stop the mosquitoes from biting people and passing on the disease as people slept.
The effectiveness of these methods:
Insecticides to kill the mosquito were effective at first however the mosquito became resistant to DDT and alternative insecticides are often too expensive for developing countries.
Mosquito traps have been effective at a small scale, but mosquitoes breed so quickly that it is impossible to trap them all.
The BTI bacteria in coconuts is a cheap and environmentally friendly solution, with 2/3 coconuts clearing a typical pond of mosquito larvae for 45 days.
Draining stagnant ponds is impossible to be effective on a large-scale, especially in tropical climates where it can rain heavily most days.
Using mosquito nets at night/covering up exposed skin is effective as mosquitoes are often most active during dusk and dawn.
Drugs to kill the parasite once inside humans have been effective for a spell, but the parasite often adapts and becomes resistant — this is true even of the Artemisia-based drugs in SE Asia.
Anti-malarial drugs often have unpleasant side-effects so may prevent people from completing the whole course.
They are also expensive to research, develop and produce, making them often too expensive for people living in developing countries.
Scientists have trialled a vaccine on children across Africa and the early results from this are encouraging (a 56% drop in malaria after a year with children who had the vaccine, compared with those who did not).
Putting larvae-eating fish such as the muddy loach into ponds. As the fish breed, this has the added advantage for farmers who can eat some of the fish and add extra protein to their diet.
Primary Health Care
PHC Strategies: ORT
Oral Rehydration Therapy is the mixture of salt and sugar with clean water to help people suffering from diarrhoea; it is very effective as it is cheap and simple and it can be administered by untrained staff.
PHC is the provision of first line care and is concerned with:
Affordable practical care
Low technology care
Holistic care involving education and traditional medicine
PHC Strategies: Vaccine Programmes
Vaccination programmes such as the polio immunisation campaign undertaken by UNICEF, were delivered to rural areas as people here find it more difficult to access healthcare.
By 2014 polio was endemic in only 3 countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria).
PHC Strategies: Water Aid
Charities such as Water Aid work with countries and other aid agencies to improve water and sanitation by installing e.g. pit latrines.
By 2010 the number of people without access to improved drinking water had decreased to (11%) and the ash compost from latrines can improve crop yield.
PHC Strategies: Barefoot Doctors
Barefoot Doctors, in countries like China, provide health education through play and songs as many people are illiterate in developing countries.
Individuals are chosen by each village to be trained to a basic level health care so were fully trusted by the community.
In countries with large rural areas it is very difficult to ensure that every village has access to a fully trained doctor/hospital..
PHC Strategies: Play Pumps International
Play Pumps International provide roundabouts which extract ground water which can be used for drinking in countries like South Africa. These provide local people with transferable skills and use appropriate level of technology
PHC Strategies: Treated Bed Nets
Insecticide treated bed nets provide a physical barrier against the mosquito and kills the mosquito preventing further spread. However, they need to be treated regularly to be effective and in some cases are used as fishing nets.