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DEIXIS and distance
Transcript of DEIXIS and distance
DISTANCE DEIXIS PERSON DEIXIS DEIXIS AND GRAMMAR pointing constant shifts
from being 'I'
to being 'you' between two speech modes... deictic expressions
(=indexicals) person deixis spatial deixis temporal deixis proximal distal deictic center that there then this here now away from speaker near speaker kore are sore me you me you he she it social deixis (honorifics) sir madam T/V Distinction familiar vs. non-familiar tu vous or higher, older, more powerful or lower, younger, less powerful young businesswoman cleaning lady old economically higher third person not in basic [I-you] interaction distance! acts like honorifics "Would his highness like some coffee?" ironic / humorous potential accusations "Somebody didn't clean up after himself." "Each person has to clean up after him or herself." c.f. general rules using 'we' "We clean up after ourselves around here." WE exclusive 'we' excluding addressee addressee included inclusive 'we' "Let us go." "Let's go." SPATIAL DEIXIS near/toward away from speaker here there hither thence come go adverbs verbs distance from speaker could be physical or mental "I'll come later." deictic projection "I'm not here now." dramatic performance "I was looking at this little puppy in a cage with such a sad look on its face. It was like, 'Oh, I'm so unhappy here, will you set me free?'" psychological distance "I don't like that." (sniffing perfume) TEMPORAL DEIXIS NOW speaker's 'now'
hearer's 'now' THEN "November 22nd, 1963? I was in Scotland then." "Dinner at 8:30 on Saturday? Okay, I'll see you then." past future importance of utterance time "Be right back in an hour." "Free Beer Tomorrow." (into view) (out of view) DISTANCE Mr. Lady coming toward from the future going away to the past 'the coming week'
'the approaching year'
'this (coming) Thursday' 'in days gone by'
'the past week' vs. present tense
"I live here now." past tense
"I lived there then." proximal form distal form "I could swim (when I was a child)"
"I could be in Hawaii (if I had a lot of money)."
"If I had a yacht, ..."
"If I was rich, ..." improbability deictic expressions differ according to context "Are you planning to be here this evening?" "I asked her if she was planning to be there that evening." proximal forms distal forms 2nd person 3rd person Han, Eunhye "Tu veux manger quoi ?" "Quoi voulez vous prendre ?" "Are you coming to the party?"
"Are you seriously going to that frat party?" Thank you! direct speech indirect speech near speaker away from speaker same context as the utterance remote from the original speech event - context
- speaker's intention
- relative distance Tom: Hello. Is that the teacher speaking? My little Tom caught cold today and he can't go to school. He asked me to ask you for a day's leave.
Teacher: Who is it speaking?
Tom: It's my father, sir! teacher: Tom, where is Mexico?
Tom: It's on the page 11 of the geographic book, sir! teacher: When is your birthday?
Tom: February 20th
teacher: Which year?
Tom: Every year! "It is raining out now, but I hope when you read this it will be sunny." encoding time (ET) decoding time (DT) I’m standing here now. We are going to New York next week. We are coming to New York next week. He then ran twenty feet to the left. "Here's your coffee."
"Phew, now I'm relieved to hear you're okay."
"Can you give this to John?" (on the phone) "Are you still there? Are you sleeping?"
"Back then, I looked so much skinnier in those jeans."
"What's that you're hiding behind your back?" A: "Are you alright?"
B: "I'm okay." "Have you summoned the humble servant, Your Majesty?" "Come here."
"What just happened over there?" this friday = 4 more nights calendar time: October 22nd, 2012
clock time: 8 p.m. NON-DEICTIC expressions (in a letter) "It's raining now in London."
(in a will) "My child, you must be very discouraged by my death now."