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Stress, Coping, and Adaptation Theory: Lazarus
Transcript of Stress, Coping, and Adaptation Theory: Lazarus
By: Juan C Raya, RN
Stress, Coping, and Adaptation
Lazarus' theory deals with how a person copes with stressful situations.
The two major factors that are precedents to stress are the person-environment relationship and appraisals.
Richard Lazarus born in March 3rd 1992. Died in November 24th 2002.
Stress, Coping and Adaptation
Lazarus states that stress is much more complicated than just stimulus and response.
Applying to Nursing
The stress theory is important to nursing so that nurses can assess the effects of stress, both physical and psychological, on the individual and the coping process that the individual uses.
When assessing, it's important to assess the meaning of the stressor to the individual. Also, the resources and support the person has.
Nurses can help with problem solving or cognitive restructuring to effectively assist in coping and adapting.
This will lead our client to new ways to cope with stress.
"This theory focuses on psychological responses. Lazarus viewed these responses as a process and states that a process-oriented approach is directed toward what an individual actually thinks and does within the context of a specific encounter and includes how these thoughts and actions change as the encounter unfolds."
Person-environment includes factors such as :
demands and constraints
There are three Cognitive appraisals:
Primary: Judgement an individual makes about a particular event.
Secondary: Evaluation of how an individual responds to an event
And reappraisal is simply appraisal after new or additional information had been received.
Stress: "A particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his/her resources."
Coping: The two types are problem-focused and emotion-focused coping.
Problem-focused: Changes the person-environment relationship
Emotion-focused: Changes the meaning of the situation
Adaptation: "capacity of a person to survive and flourish."
Lazarus was a psychologist who published 15 books!
He worked for the Department of Psychology in the University of California
Best known for his work on coping.
Psychological stress and the process
published in 1966.
Campos, J. (n.d.). Richard Lazarus. Retrieved April 16, 2015, from http://senate.universityofcalifornia.edu/inmemoriam/richardlazarus.html
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. (n.d.). Theoretical basis for nursing (Fourth ed.).