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Ancient History Timeline
Transcript of Ancient History Timeline
First Hominids Appear
The Australopithecines lived during Prehistory. They are believed to have been the first hominids to become bipedal.
Mary Leaky Finds Bipedal Footprints
In 1978, Mary Leakey found footprints of the Paleolithic Era hominids, the Australopithecines. These footprints were in pairs and were found in a trail up a hill. This proved that the Australopithecines were bipedal hominids.
Don Johanson Finds Lucy
In 1974, Don Johnason was digging for evidence of early hominids. He had a stroke of luck. In Hadar, Ethiopia, Don Johanson found the first complete skeleton of an Australopithecus which he now calls Lucy. She had a brain the size of one quarter-one third of a humans brain, and they believe she was only 3 feet and 6 inches-4 feet tall. Don estimated that she was around 20 when she died.
Paleolithic Age Begins
The hominids that lived during the Paleolithic Age were nomadic (moved around from place to place). They were hunter-gatherers. They were able to make stone tools for protection and were able to master fire. They also must have had one of the first oral languages, because they had to have spoken at least to each other about where they were traveling, since they were nomadic.
200,000 BCE-30,000 BCE
The Neanderthals lived during the Paleolithic Era of Prehistory. They lived during the ice age, so they mastered fire, so they could stay warm. Anthropologists believe that they were the first hominids to bury their dead. Neanderthals mysteriously died out around 30,000 BCE, but we do not know how or why. We do have evidence that people today have some of the same physical features in their bone structure (especially in the face.)
40,000 BCE-8,000 BCE
Cro-Magnons are considered to be the last hominids before Homo sapiens. They lived during the Paleolithic Era. They almost have an identical skeleton to today's average person. The Cro-Magnons were the first hominids to create art. They created stationary art (cave paintings) and portable art (Venus Statues).
Mesolithic Age Begins
The Mesolithic Age was the shortest age in Prehistory. It was in the middle of the two others ages (Paleolithic & Neolithic). It is called Mesolithic because Meso means middle (the middle stage) and lithic means stone (part of the Stone Age).
Stone Tools and Weapons
Neolithic Age Begins
The Neolithic Age was caused by the Neolithic Revolution. The Neolithic Revolution was when Homo sapiens first discovered farming, domesticated animals, and built the first Neolithic farming villages. Some examples of Neolithic farming villages are Catal Huyuk and Jericho.
Otzi: The Iceman
Otzi was found with a group of copper tools. Before the discovery of Otzi, archaeologists didn't think that anyone had used copper or discovered it. This proved that copper was used during the Neolithic Age.
Otzi, the Iceman, was found in the Otzal Alps in Italy in the year of 1991. He was found with strange clothing and various stone tools. Using Carbon 14 Dating, scientists were able to discover that he was more than 5,000 years old (45 years old when he died.) He was a very important discover that helped us learn about the Neolithic Age.
Otzi the Iceman
Mesopotamia is located in what we call the Fertile Crescent. The Fertile Crescent is mostly made up of modern day Iraq and Syria. Inside the Fertile Crescent, is Mesopotamia (the land between two rivers). These two rivers are the Tigris River and Euphrates River.
Fertile Crescent Map
Ur in Sumer
Ur is believed to be the first civilization which was located in the small region called Sumer. Sumer was located in Mesopotamia. Ur was the first city state. The people in Ur were the first to invent the plow, the wheel, a written language called Cuneiform, a lunar calendar, and the power of 60 for math relations.
Egyptian Civilization Begins
The Egyptian Civilization began in 3,200 BCE. At first, Egypt was separated into two separate areas called Upper & Lower Egypt. Each area was ruled by a different ruler. Upper Egypt & Lower Egypt each had their own crowns. The crown of Upper Egypt was white, and the crown of Lower Egypt was red.
The Crowns of Upper & Lower Egypt, ferrebeekeeper, http://ferrebeekeeper.wordpress.com/2011/06/02/the-white-crown-red-crown-and-blue-crown-of-ancient-egypt/, 26 January 2014
Upper & Lower Egypt Divisions, Suzie Manley's Backtrack Egypt, http://www.suziemanley.com/backtrack/unification.htm, 26 Jauary 2014
The Old Kingdom Begins
It is believed that around 2,600 BCE a war broke out between Upper & Lower Egypt about uniting themselves. King Menes (or Narmer) won the battle and united Egypt under one rule in his capital in Memphis. He put combined the crowns of Upper & Lower Egypt to create the crown of the untied Egypt. He created the first Egyptian Dynasty.
The Crowns of Egypt, Everythings Electric, http://www.everythingselectric.com/forum/index.php?topic=178.135, 26 January 2014
Straight Sided Pyramids Built
Straight Sided Pyramids were the first type of pyramids. They were the only kind of pyramid that was built in the Old Kingdom.
Cities Are Built Along the Indus River
In modern day Pakistan and India, the people of the Indus Valley began building their homes along the Indus River in 2,500 BCE. These building became part of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some major cities in the Indus Valley include Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa, and Kalibangan. The Indus Valley Civilization is sometimes called the Harappan Civilization.
Buildings in the Indus Valley, Indus Valley Civilization, http://www.crystalinks.com/induscivilization.html, 26 January 2014
Sargon Defeats Sumer and Creates the First Empire
Sargon of Akkad overthrew the civilization of Sumer in 2,350 BCE. He created the first empire while ruling over who were now called the Akkadians. When Sargon overthrew the Sumerians, he did not get rid of their ideas and inventions. He added onto them to make them better. This was unique, because not all leaders who ruled during Mesopotamia kept the past civilization's ideas and inventions.
Akkadian Empire, Google Images, https://www.google.com/search?q=sargon+of+akkad&espv=210&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=08nlUpvsMcPNsQSKsIDoDg&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#q=akkadians&spell=1&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=GOr11t6nR0F12M%253A%3BXRSoyHD0tkkyYM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fbahumuth.chaosnet.org%252Fimages%252Fakkadian_empire3.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fbahumuth.chaosnet.org%252Fapocrypha8.html%3B370%3B281, 26 January 2014
Trade Begins Between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamians
The people of the Indus Valley had an easy route to get to Mesopotamia. This is why they began to trade. There was evidence found in Mesopotamia that solved two problems for archaeologists at the Indus Valley site. At first, archaeologists were not sure of when the Indus Valley existed, but when Indus Valley seals were found in Mesopotamia this gave a clue to archaeologists about when the Indus Valley existed and gave evidence the the people of the Indus Valley and Mesopotamians traded.
Indus Valley Seals, Softpedia, http://news.softpedia.com/newsImage/Indus-Valley-Script-to-Be-Deciphered-by-Computer-Model-2.jpg/, 26 January 2014
End of the Old Kingdom & the Beginning of the 1st Intermediate Period
As the pharaohs in the Old Kingdom spent more money on the pyramids, there was no money left, so the pharaohs lost power. Suddenly Egypt launched itself into a new period called the 1st Intermediate Period. There was no money and no pharaohs that could take care of Egypt. It was a disaster. There was less rain in the south, so the Nile was not flooding. This caused famine and drought. Brothers fought against their brothers, and cannibalism became something that was welcome.
1st Intermediate Period Art, Art Resource, http://www.artres.com/C.aspx?VP3=ViewBox_VPage&VBID=2UN365877PP7&IT=ZoomImageTemplate01_VForm&IID=2UNTWAHJMY_F&PN=13&CT=Search&SF=0, 3 February 2014
The Beginning of the Middle Kingdom
Mentuhotep was the powerful pharaoh who reunited Egypt as one again to start the period called Middle Kingdom.During the Middle Kingdom, Egypt started to deal with irrigation. They moved the capital to Thebes, and pharaohs started to train their son's as co-rulers so no one would challenge the throne when they died.
Irrigation Canals in Egypt, The Worlds of David Darling,http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/I/AE_irrigation.html, 3 February 2014
The Start of the Reign of Hammurabi
Hammurabi was the leader of the Babylonian Civilization. Hammurabi created the first law code of all time. Some of the main ideas that covered in his law code were vengeance, harshness, just vs. not just, and required respect for authority. Hammurabi had his code engraved on stone stelles which were spread around the Babylonian civilization. If you broke the law code, you had to go to
The Court of Hammurabi.
Stone Stelle with Hammurabi's Law Code, Art History Time Line, http://dereksarthistorytimeline.weebly.com/uploads/9/6/6/4/9664944/4532233_orig.jpg, 3 February 2014
Indus Valley Cities Begin to Decline
The Indus Valley cities began to decline in 1,750 BCE. There are many theories as to how and why this civilization declined. Some say that it ended because of a shift in tectonic plates which moved the Indus River away from many of the houses in the Indus Valley. Others say that the Indus Valley People grew to much cotton and were not able to farm any longer. The most popular theory is the Aryans came and started to take over the Indus Valley Civilization.
The Indus River, Global Bhasin, http://globalbhasin.blogspot.com/2012/02/ancient-indus-civilization.html, 3 February 2014
The Beginning of the 2nd Intermediate Period
When the Hyksos took over Egypt from the inside, this began the 2nd Intermediate Period. The 2nd Intermediate Period was a time when the pharaohs of Egypt were all Hyksos. When the Hyksos took over, they adopted the Egyptian gods and goddesses and built them their own temples. They also adapted hieroglyphics, Middle Kingdom art, and just plain Egyptian culture.
Hyksos, Daily Kos, http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/03/20/958357/-Ancient-Egypt-The-Hyksos, 3 February 2014
The Hittites At Their Height
The Hittites ruled over Mesopotamia. They were a very powerful civilization, because they had advanced technology at that time. They were master horse tamers, built large chariots that could hold three men, figured out how to smelt iron, and created their own law code that was based on compensation. They were also enemies of the Egyptians.
Hittite Chariots, Yabangee, http://yabangee.com/2012/06/the-hittites-mystery-of-a-vanished-empire/, 9 February 2014
The Beginning of New Kingdom
The New Kingdom was started when a strong pharaoh united Egypt back under one ruler and defeated the Hittite army. The New Kingdom was known as the empire age, because for the first time Egypt was ruled in empires. Some memorable pharaohs from the New Kingdom were Akenhaton, Hapshepsut, Ramses the 2nd, and Ramsers the 3rd.
The Pharaoh Akenhaton, Armarna Project, http://www.amarnaproject.com/, 9 February 2014
The Aryans Invade and Hinduism Begins
Most people believe that the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization was brought about by the an invasion. This invasion was caused by the Aryans. When they took over the Indus Valley, they changed they social classes and created the caste system. They put the remaining people of the Indus Valley at the bottom of the system. Sometime during this period, the religion of Hinduism was created. The exact date of the creation of Hinduism is unknown to the world.
Hinduism Gods, The Hindu Perspective, http://hinduperspective.com/2013/02/04/hinduism-one-god-or-many/, 9 February 2014.
Ancient History Timeline
Straight Sided Pyramid, Pyramids, http://whgbetc.com/mind/pyramids.html, 10 February 2014
The Assyrians Take Over
The Assyrians were known as one of the cruelest conquerors and rulers of Mesopotamia. They had a beautiful capital which was called Nineveh. They had the first most effective empire. The Assyrian civilization was the longest civilization in Mesopotamia. They were also known for their collection of texts from different civilizations that they had conquered. They put these texts in the Library of Nineveh.
Texts From the Library of Nineveh, Zen College Life, http://www.zencollegelife.com/the-history-of-libraries-through-the-ages/, 10 February 2014.
Chaldeans Take Over
The Chaldeans took over Mesopotamia in 612 BCE. Sometimes the Chaldeans are called the New Babylonians. They recreated the capital of Babylon, and were able to make beautiful architecture which included the Ishtar Gates and Hanging Gardens of Babylon. They were able to figure out the exact length of a year. They enjoyed the topics of astrology and astronomy. This civilization sadly only lasted for less than 100 years.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanging_Gardens_of_Babylon, 10 February 2014
Siddhartha Gautama is Born
Siddhartha Gautama was a Hindu prince who was locked in his palace by his father after a prophecy foretold that he would become a wonderful king if he stayed in his palace. One day when he was older, Siddhartha Gautama went outside his palace only to see suffering people. He wanted to change this, so he meditated under a tree for a very long time. When he was finished, he believed that he had reached enlightenment. This was the start of the religion Buddhism. Siddhartha Gautama is now mostly known as Buddha.
Buddha, Google Images, https://www.google.com/search?q=siddhartha+gautama&espv=210&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=xF75UpOIM6iIyAGLxoDgBg&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=667#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=a8uPTkVOIHyAtM%253A%3BK8wjkE1CS2QPeM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fpastorbrianchilton.files.wordpress.com%252F2013%252F12%252Fgautam_buddha_in_meditation.gif%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fpastorbrianchilton.wordpress.com%252F2013%252F12%252F03%252Fis-god-a-sexist-evaluating-the-importance-the-bible-places-on-women%252F%3B466%3B625, 10 February 2014
Alexander the Great Conquers Egypt
Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia. He is known to be one of the greatest military geniuses of all time.
Alexander the Great, Google Images, https://www.google.com/search?q=alexander+the+great&espv=210&es_sm=93&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=qGD5UqbTLoi2yAGsrICYBQ&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1366&bih=624#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=qP2tD3JwGKVuJM%253A%3BqdiTCb9NTTfJqM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fupload.wikimedia.org%252Fwikipedia%252Fcommons%252Fa%252Fac%252FBattleofIssus333BC-mosaic-detail1.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fen.wikipedia.org%252Fwiki%252FAlexander_the_Great%3B700%3B483, 10 February 2014
Octavian Augustus Becomes the First Emperor
Cleopatra Dies & Egypt Becomes a Roman Provnice
After the death of Marc Antony, Cleopatra was devastated. A year later (30 BCE), Cleopatra went to visit the temple where Marc Antony was kept and brought a poison asp inside the temple with her. The asp was hidden a basket of figs. Octavian's officers found her dead inside the temple soon after. Octavian then took over Egypt. Egypt became a Roman province. Therefore, Cleopatra was the last leader of an independent Egypt.
Cleopatra, Women Warriors, http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00160/n_cleopatra.html, 10 February 2014.
The Hebrews Begin Their Exodus From Egypt
The Hebrews left Egypt because of the drought and threat of famine. The Exodus is remembered every year during the time called Passover. This was led by Moses. While the Hebrews were traveling across the Sinai Peninsula, Moses went to the top of Mount Sinai to pray. He spoke to God, and came back down with two new stone tablets that had the Ten Commandments on them. The Ten Commandments were written by Yahweh and became the basis for the civil and religious laws of Judasim. These laws formed a new covenant between God and the Hebrews. If they followed the Ten Commandments, God would protect them.
The Ten Commandments, The Jewish Teen, http://thejewishteen.blogspot.com/2011/06/10-commandments.html, 16 February 2014
King David is Succeeded By His Son Solomon
Chaldeans Attack Jerusalem and Destroy Solomon's Temple
The Second Temple is Built
Solomon was the son of King David. He built the great temple in which the Ark of the Covenant was kept. This temple also had the two stone tablets with the Ten Commandments written on them inside it.
The Ark of the Covenant, The Phoenixmasonry, http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/masonicmuseum/Ark_of_the_Covenant_Replica.htm, 16 February 2014
Nebuuchadnezzar was the king of the Chaldeans. He was able to attack Jerusalem and destroy Solomon's temple. He exiled all of the Hebrews to Babylon. This was called the Babylonian Captivity.
Babylonian Captivity, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Jews_and_Judaism_in_the_Land_of_Israel, 16 February 2014
The Persian king, Cyrus, conquered Babylon. This enabled to freedom of the Hebrew and allowed them to return to Jerusalem. When they returned, they were able to rebuild Solomon's temple.
Solomon's Temple, The Templof Solomon, http://www.templemount.org/solomon.html, 16 February 2014
City-States of Byblos and Tyre Are Established
The city-states of Byblos and Tyre were a part of the Phoenician's civilization. Byblos and Tyre are two of the most famous city-sates where the Phoenicians lived.
Ruins of Ancient Byblos, Stan Ouse Photography, http://www.stanouse.com/images%20Lebanon/Byblos/pages/165%20Phoenician%20and%20Roman%20Ruins%20in%20Byblos.html, 22 February 2014
God Commands Abraham to Move His People to Canaan
Abraham lived in Ur (a city state in Sumer). God commanded Abraham to move all his people to Canaan. Canaan is believed to be modern day Palestine. Canaan was believed to be a promise land to the Hebrews. God would help them succeed and bless them there.
Map of Canaan, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, ShiaChat.com, http://www.shiachat.com/forum/topic/234987913-is-israel-stolen-land/page-2, 16 February 2014
The Minoans Become a Major Trading Power in the Aegean
The Minoan Civilization was located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea. They were a very peaceful civlization. They enjoyed activities such as bull riding and art. They made beautiful frescoes and potttery. It was a very advanced civilization.
Minoan Map, The Human Journey, http://www.humanjourney.us/preAxialGreece.html, 22 February 2014
The Descendants of Abraham Move to Egypt
While the descendants of Abraham lived in Egypt, they were the only monotheistic religion in their area. They worshiped the god Yahweh. As long as the Hebrews followed Yahweh's rules, they would be treated well by Yahweh. This was a part of the Covenant. The covenant is the promise between the founder of the Hebrew people and God. It stated that if obeyed his orders you would have a happy life and would be save. In Egypt, the Hebrews were at first treated nicely, but then became slaves.
Yahweh, IronChariots.org, http://wiki.ironchariots.org/index.php?title=Yahweh, 16 February 2014
The Myceanaens Develop City-States
The Mycenaeans city-states were in all differnt places. The strongest city state was Mycenae. The Mycenaeans were a lot like the Minoans. There writing and art were very much the same. Some believe that the Myceanaeans adapted the culture of the Minoans for their own civilizatoin, except for the fact that the Myenaeans were very strong and like war.
A Peak of Influence: The Creation of Gold Death Masks
Mycenaean Art, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece, 22 February 2014
The Mycenaens started to created death mask in 1,550 BCE. These were beautiful pieces of artwork. One of the most famous death masks is what was believed to be the death mask of Agamemnon. We now know that this mask is not the death mask of Agamemnon, because it does not date back to the same time as Agamemnon.
The Death Mask of Agamemnon, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece22 February 2014
Volcanic Eruption on Thera
The Volcanic Eruption on Thera (modern day Santorini) was the first part of the decline of the Minoan Civilization. The eruption of the volcano destroyed most of the Minoan's fleet. Also, everytime that the Minoans tried to rebuid their city and get back their fleet, a earthquake from the aftermath of the volcano would destroy their city again. This was the decline of the Minoans.
Thera, Times lists, http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2014572_2014574_2014636,00.html, 22 February 2014
Minoan Palace Falls the the Mycenaeans
After the eruption on Thera, the Minoan Palace soon fell to the Mycenaeans.
Soon, the Minoan's palace was used as a colonie of the Mycenaeans.
Mycenaean World Map, East Village Wine Geek, https://evwg.wordpress.com/2008/11/, 22 February 2014
Traditional Date of the Trojan War
The traditional date of the the Trojan War is as told in the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The Trojan War was a war fought between the Myceanaens and the Trojans. In many historical stories, this war was caused by the Myceanaens stealing a Trojan Princess named Helen. A more logical reason for this war was the fact that the Trojan owned a main trade route (which are now the Dardanelle and Bosporous Straights), and the Mycenaeans wanted control of it.
The Trojan Horse, Altra Point, http://altrapoint.com/2011/08/mythology-trojan-war/l, 22 February 2014
The Phoenicians Become the Major Trading Power in the Aegean
When the Phoenicians became the major trading power in the Aegean, they had three major trade products. These were their purple dye (Phoinix), their wonderful cedar, and there newly introudced glass.
Purple Dye, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrian_purple, 22 February 2014
The Hebrews Unite and Form the Kingdom of Israel
Saul and David were the two leaders who started the first Hebrew kingdom named Israel. Saul also had been able to drive out Philistines from Palestine. They were both very successful.
Saul & David, Wikimeddia, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Guercino_Saul_Davide.jpg, 16 February 2014
The Dorian Invasion Starts the Dark Age of Greece
The Phoenician Alphabet is Developed
The Dorians were a less advanced civilization. During what was the Dark Age of Greece, there were almost 400 years worth of no written records. This was because the Dorians were so much less advanced then the Mycenaeans that they weren't able to handle a written language. The Dorians soon died out.
The Dorians, Welcome to Kos Island, http://www.travel-to-kos.com/page.php?page_id=22, 22 February 2014
The Phoenician alphabet is very important to us. The Greek alphabet was a adapted version of the Phoenician alphabet. The English alphabet was based off the Greek alphabet. Basically, the Phoenician alphabet is the root of the English alphabet.
The Phoenician Alphabet, Phoenicians Alphabet, http://www.phoenician.org/alphabet.htm, 22 February 2014
The Kingdom of Israel Splits Into Two Separate Kingdoms
Solomon spent so much money on building temples and building in the kingdom of Israel, that most of his people became laborers to make money for him. After the death of Solomon, the Kingdom of Israel split into two separate kingdoms, because of the complete chaos that Solomon had caused. These two kingdoms were Israel and Judah.
Map of Israel and Judah, Theology in Sneakers, http://www.theologyinsneakers.com/portfolio/compare-and-contrast-the-northern-and-southern-kingdoms, 16 February 2014
The City of Carthage is Founded
The City of Carthage was one of the many Phoenician colonies. Carthage was one of the most important colonies, becuase it enabled the Phoenicians to have a new trade port off the coast of Africa.
Phoenician Trade Routes, Carthage North Africa, http://www.mmdtkw.org/CNAf001GeologyPrehistoryHistroriography.html, 23 February 2014
The First Recorded Circumnavigation of Africa
The Assyrians Conquer Israel
Israel and Judah were paying tribute to the Assyrians hoping that they would not attack. This did not work. In 725 BCE, the Assyrians began a siege in Samaria. In 772 BCE, the Assyrians had taken over the whole northern half (Israel). Judah was not disturbed until 150 years later.
Assyrians Conquer Israel, Historical Boy's Clothing, http://histclo.com/chron/ancient/heb/hist/ass/hha-con.html, 16 February 2014
The Phoenicians were very good navigators. They had forests full of cedar trees which helped them make their ships. They were able to circumnavigate Africa, because they had very high technology ships and knew how to follow the north star. If they followed the north star, they would be able to sail away from land and during the night which no one had every done.
Phoenician Ships, Mediterranean Ship Types, http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~catshaman/15Sailors/05sailors12.htm, 23 February 2014
In 539 BCE, Cyrus the Great also conquered the Phoenicians. This caused many of the Phoenicians to Carthage to seek peace.
Cyrus the Great, United for Human Rights, http://www.humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/brief-history/cyrus-cylinder.html, 23 February 2014
The Dark Age of Greece
The Dark Age of Greece took place while the Dorians inhabited most of Greece. All knowledge of a written language and writing was lost. There are no written records from this period of time. The past was only kept alive by the use of songs and oral poetry.
The Dark Age of Greece Illustration, http://clyde.winters.tripod.com/chapter6.html, 6 April 2014
The Archaic Period
The Archaic Period of Greece was when Greece began to rearise. They started developing new city-states which they called polis. Also, the Greeks began to establish colonies . Some of the colonies were Cumae, Phaestum, and Syracuse. Athens & Sparta also emerged as important city-states .
Athens, World History ASFMS Social Studie, http://www.mitchellteachers.org/WorldHistory/AncientGreece/UnderstandingthePersianWar.htm, 6 April 2014
The First Olympic Games
The first Olympic Games took place in Olympia. The first traditional date was 776 BCE. Some of the events in these games were chariot racing, boxing, wrestling, and a race in armor.
The First Olympic Games, How Stuff Works, http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/first-olympics1.htm, 6 April 2014
Homer Composes the Illiad & Odysseu
Homer was a blind minstrel from Chios. He wrote down stories of the Trojan War and created the epic poems of the Illiad and the Odyssey.
Odysseus at the Sirens, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siren_(mythology), 6 April 2014
Democracy in Athens Develops
There were three main men who helped bring democracy to Athens. These men were Solon, Pisistratus, and Cleisthenes. Solon outlawed debt slavery and created social and political reforms to help conflict between the rich and the poor. He started the process of democracy. Pisistratus was a tyrant who redistributed land in Athens. Cleisthenes increased the Council of 400 to 500, divieded Athens up into ten new tribes, and introduced ostracism.
Solon, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solon, 6 April 2014
The Ionian Revolt
The Ionian Revolt took place in Miletos. Miletos no longer wanted to be part of the Persian Empire. Athens helped Miletos fight against the Persians, but the Persian won in the end. This made Darius, the king of the Persians, angry at Athens which sparked the Persian Wars.
The Ionian Revolt, Wikia, http://thegoldenageofgreece.wikia.com/wiki/The_Ionian_Revolt, 6 April 2014
The Persian Wars
The Persian Wars were fought by combined Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. The Persians had a much larger and better army than the Greeks, but the Greeks were very smart and tactical when it came to war. Some of the key battles in the Persians War were The Battle at Marathon (which the Greeks won), The Battle at Thermopylae or the Battle of the 300 Spartans (which the Persians won), and The Battle of Salamis (which the Greeks won).
The Persian Wars Map, http://www.concentric.net/~marlowe/marathon.shtml, 6 April 2014
The Delian League is Created
The Delian League was a group of city-states in Greece that pledged to be ready for another Persian War. Soon after the Delian League was created, Athens grew to be a stronger city-state than the others in the league and forced all the other city-states to become a part of the Athenian Empire.
Map of the Delian League, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delian_League, 6 April 2014
The Golden Age of Greece
The Golden Age of Greece was led by a great ruler named Pericles. This was a time where the Greeks had beauitful art, advanced architecture, drama, history, and science. For example, people began to enjoys comedies and tragedies which were forms of drama.
The Parthenon is Built
The Parthenon is an example of Greek art and architecture during the Golden Age of Greece. It was built to r the goddess Athena. It was built for Athena, because she was the god who gave Athens to Greece.
The Parthenon, ARTH 209, http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/ARTH209/Parthenon_gallery.html, 6 April 2014
The Peloponnesian Wars
The Peloponnesian Wars was fought by Sparta and Athens. Athens felt like they were the best army in the world and were unbeatable, but they were not. Sparta insured their victory after the Battle of Aegospotami. Athens surrendered a year later. Then, Sparta sent in thirty tyrants to rule Athens.
The Peloponnesian War, Spartanusm, http://spartanusm.wikispaces.com/The+Peloponnesian+War, 6 April 2014
The Rule of the Thirty Tyrants
The Thirty Tyrants were sent into Athens by Sparta to rule Athens after the Peloponnesian War. They were harsh rulers in Athens.
Thirty Tyrants, SuperStock, http://www.superstock.com/stock-photos-images/4409-131339, 6 April 2014
Democracy is Restored in Athens
When the thirty tyrants that were sent from Sparta were overthrown, Athens recreated their democracy, but it was chaotic and weak. During the new democracy, philosophers began to arise. These philosophers sought the truth while following two assumptions that they had made.
Plato, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plato, 6 April 2014
The Trial of Socrates
Socrates was a famous philosopher in Athens. He was a critic of the sophists. When he was 70 years old, he had to go to trial. He was brought to trial because he was corrupting the youth of Athens and neglecting the city's gods. He was found guilty after trying to tell the jurors that his teaching were helping Athens. He was sentenced to the death penalty.
Socrates, Mysteries & Manners, http://mysteriesandmanners.wordpress.com/tag/socrates/, 6 April 2014
Phillip of Macedonia Takes All of Greece
Phillip of Macedonia was a brilliant general and king who ruled over Macedonia. At only 23 years old, he planned to invade Greece and take them over. In 339, the battles began. In 338 BCE, The battle between Phillip and Greece ended at the Battle of Chaeronea. The was the end of Greek independence.
Phillip of Macedonia, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon, 6 April 2014
Alexander the Great Comes to Power
Alexander the Great was the son of Phillip of Macedonia, and when his father died, Alexander proclaimed himself as king of Macedonia. He was able to take over Persia, India, and Egypt before his death in 323 BCE.
The Empire of Alexander the Great, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great, 6 April 2014
The Hellenistic Age
During the Hellenistic Age, Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian culture combined under the Macedonian rule. Koine became the popular spoken language. There were many beautiful works of art and architecture during this time. The Alexandrian Library was also built. Science, technology, mathematics, and physics were also being studied.
The Alexandrian Library, The Alexandrian Library, http://www.empyreanquest.com/Alexandrian/alexand.htm, 6 April 2014
Rome Conquers Greece
The Romans conquered Greece in 146 BCE. This was the last time that Greece was independent until modern times.
Rome Conquers Greece, GamesRadar, http://www.gamesradar.com/rome-total-war-alexander-10/, 6 April 2014
Rome is Established
Rome was established in an area which was made up of 7 hills. This was the beginning of Rome's monarchy. Along with the establishment of Rome, was the legend of Romulus and Remus. Romulus and Remus were raised by a she-wolf. Romulus killed Remus when they became older. Romulus then helped found the city of Rome.
The 7 Hills of Rome Map, Ancient Rome, http://ancient-rome.com/geo_f.htm, 30 April 2014
The 7 Legendary Kings of Rome
The 7 Legendary Kings of Rome were the only kings who ever ruled Rome. The first king of Rome was Romulus. The seventh (and last) king of Rome was Tarquinius Superbus.
The Seven Kings of Rome, Kings of Rome, http://www.personal.psu.edu/hyw5121/assignment7.html, 30 April 2014
Rome Becomes a Republic
The last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown in Rome in 509 BCE. This ended Rome's monarchy and was the beginning of the republic in Rome.
Tarquinius Superbus, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Tarquinius_Superbus, 30 April 2014.
The Three Punic Wars
The Punic Wars were fought between Carthage and Rome. This war was a show of brilliant gernerals with Hannibal fighting for Carthage and Scipio fighting for Rome. There are four very important dates during these three wars.
Dates to Know
218 BCE-Hannibal Invades Italy & Starts the Second Punic War. Hannibal was able to cross the Alps with his army and elephants to get to Rome.
217 BCE-Hannbal led a surprise attack on Rome at Lake Trasimene. He was able to trap a whole Roman army during that battle.
216 BCE-The Battle of Cannae. Hannibal won this battle making it the greatest defeat ever suffered by Rome.
146 BCE-By driving Hannibal back to his home, Rome was finally able to conquer and destroy Cartahge. The Romans put salt in all of the Carthaginian fields so nothing could grow. This led to the destruction of Carthage.
Julius Caesar became the dictator of Rome in 45 BCE. The people loved him so much, that they were thinking about making him king of Rome. In 45 BCE, Caesar was assasinated by a group of men who believed he was bad for Rome.
Julius Caesar, Fearless Men, http://fearlessmen.com/gaius-julius-caesar-the-roman-republic/, 1 May 2014
Octavian Augustus was the first emperor of Rome. This was the beginning of the Pax Romana or peace in Rome. This period lasted for about 200 years. The was the beginning of Roman emperors and an empire in Rome. This was also the end of the Roman repbulic.
Octavian Augustus, The Giust Gallery, http://www.giustgallery.com/sculpture-reproductions/detail/augustus-caesar-bust/item-406/, 1 May 2014.
Jesus is Crucified
In 29 AD, Jesus was crucified on the cross as a sacrfice on the cross. A few days later, Jesus was brought back to life to live again.
Jesus is Crucified on the Cross, Defenders of the Catholic Faith, http://www.catholic-convert.com/blog/2014/04/17/was-jesus-naked-when-crucified/, 1 May 2014.
The Great Roman Fire
The Great Roman Fire took place in 64 AD. There is a legend that the emperor at the time, Nero, stat there aned the fire happen while playing his violin. Then after the fire ended, he blamed the christians. In reality, Nero was most likely the the cause of the fire.
The Great Fire of Rome, DiscoveYour Italy, http://discoveryouritaly.com/events/nerone-exhibition-at-the-coliseum/1968/, 1 May 2014.
The Flavian Amphitheatre is Built
The Flavian Amphitheatre was an outdoor theatre that was used for entertaining the Romans. Today, we know this amphitheatre as the colosseum. Part of the colosseum still exists today.
The Flavian Empire/Colosseum, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colosseum, 1 May 2014.
Mt. Vesuvius Erupts
Mt. Vesuvius was a volcano that was in Italy. In 79 AD, it erupted. It burried the cities of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae. These cities were completely destroyed and are a archaeological wonder today.
Mt. Vesuvius, The Getty Iris, http://blogs.getty.edu/iris/volcano-observer-sir-william-hamilton-and-mount-vesuvius/, 1 May 2014.
Five Good Emperors
During the time of 96-180 AD, Rome went through a group of good emperors. These emperors were Nerva (96-98 AD), Trajan (98-117 AD), Hadrian (117-138 AD), Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD), and Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD).
Marcus Aurelius, Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Metropolitan_Marcus_Aurelius_Roman_2C_AD_2.JPG, May 2014.
Diocletian Divides the Roman Empire
Diocletian was an emperor in Rome. He divided Roman Empire for the first time in Rome. Diocletian was a bad emperor.
Diocletian, Propaganda Matrix, http://www.propagandamatrix.com/diocletian.html, 2 May 2014
Constantine Becomes Emperor
Constantine was an emperor in Rome. He reunited Rome into one empire. Later, he converted to Christianity. He also moved the capital of Rome to Constantinople.
Constantinople, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walls_of_Constantinople, 2 May 2014.
Christianity Becomes an Official Religion of Rome
In 380 AD, Christianity became a official religion in Rome.
Cross, No Thanks on Proposition 8, http://webpages.scu.edu/ftp/vcasalegno/religioustraditional.html, 2 May 2014.
Rome Splits Into Two Empires
In 395 AD, Rome split into two empires. This never changed for the rest of Rome's existense. The two empires were East and West.
The Two Empires of Rome, Rooome, http://jmagnanelli.aisites.com/imd110/history.html, 2 May 2014.
End of the Western Roman Empire
The end of the Western Roman Empire led to a chain reaction of Roman events. Ancient Rome soon fell afterwards. Also, Romulus Augustulus was overthrown by Germanic armies.
Romulus Augustulus, History Republic, http://historyrepublic.wordpress.com/2013/08/17/whos-really-the-last-roman-emperor/, 2 May 2014.
The End of the Byzantium Empire
The Byzantium Empire (The Eastern Roman Empire) fell in 1453 AD. It lasted much longer than the Western Roman Empire. The Byzantium fell to the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottomon Empire Flag, Flags of the World, http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/tr-ottom.html, 2 May 2014.