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North American Aerospace Defence Command
Transcript of North American Aerospace Defence Command
Its a Canadian and USA bi-national organization meant for aerospace control and the warning, detection, validation, against attacks. They monitor aircrafts, missiles, or any other space vehicles.
It was created in 1947 during the cold war to centralize operational control of continental air defenses and protect against the threat of Soviet bombers.
Key Terms of NORAD
In 1940 U.S President Roosevelt and Canadian Prime Minister King, came up with the Permanent Joint Board of Defense (PJBD), or the Ogdensburg Declaration, to begin the protection of both countries.
7 years later they proposed an interchange of military personnel; the adoption of common designs and standards in arms, equipment, organization, and cooperation
Bilateral or Multilateral?
NORAD is a bilateral treaty since it only protects Canada and the United States.
The two countries share one of the most extensive and long-standing defence relationships in the world
Nations Involved; Canada and the United States - North America
Political, Social or Economic?
Success of NORAD
It has military bases in Alaska, Manitoba, Alberta, Quebec, Florida, New York, and Colorado
After September 11th, 2001, NORAD has made changes to adapt to threats by increasing its operational readiness and its ability to respond to threats from both outside and inside North America's airspace.
In August 2004, Canada and the U.S. reinforced their commitment to the command’s existing by amending the NORAD Agreement to allow its missile warning function
On May 12, 1958, the agreement between the Canadian and U.S. governments that established NORAD was finalized; the agreement included 11 principles governing the organization and operation of NORAD and called for a renewal of the agreement in 10 years.
However it wasn't until 1958 that Canada and the U.S signed the initial agreement sanction of shared air defense command arrangements for all of North America. The agreement included 11 principles governing the organization and operation of NORAD and called for a renewal of the agreement in 10 years
Its modern day concerns are detecting and advising both Canadian and United States governments about airborne threats to North America (aerospace warning) and taking action to deter and defend against those threats (aerospace control).
NORAD operations expanded to include tracking small-engine aircraft, the primary means of smuggling drugs. Ground radars, Airborne Warning and Control System aircraft (AWACS), and Over-the-Horizon, Backscatter radars were used to detect possible drug smuggling aircraft. .
Exercise AMALGAM DART provides valuable field training involving multiple NORAD regions and the deployment of air assets to Forward Operating Locations (FOL) in Canada allowing NORAD to maintain a credible, flexible and ready capability to respond to a variety of threats and situations.
much of the command belongs to the Americans and theres controversy that Canada doesn't pull as much weight as the States does
Traditional and Non- Traditional Attacks;
Traditional threats concern nation-states and their military, and are largely symmetrical in nature.
Non-traditional threats are generally associated terrorism, but might also entail the covert support or covert use of capabilities by nation-states.
For example, Russia and China possess the capabilities to strike and destroy major North American targets, and NORAD must be prepared for their strategic attacks