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Unit 2 - Questionnaire design and measuring hypotheses
Transcript of Unit 2 - Questionnaire design and measuring hypotheses
to test your hypotheses In groups: Revise your hypotheses, and break your hypotheses down
into measurable parts! Limitations software nominal scales dichotomous ordinal scales Breaking down hypotheses internet access
internet usage Sampling choosing respondents representative sample sample population types of sampling:
Convenience, snowball, judgement, quota
Simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster, Skip interval, population size / sample size,
determined starting point Making sure that you get answers from all the groups you want to research (male/female) (age brackets, religion etc) Dividing the population into groups and
then choosing some of the groups to
represent the whole population
(groups should have similar means) Skip interval, population size / sample size selection based on researcher’s
judgement of what representativeness
of the population would be. quotas, based on demographic or
classification factors selected by the researcher
are establised for population subgroups Getting the interviewees to
suggest other possible candidates Choosing people that you have
easy access to. Now that you know some basic methods for scaling and creating questions, it is time to apply this knowledge to your hypotheses! interval scales ratio scales Measurement and Scaling -
Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling what do we measure? how can we measure something? Not the object, but characteristics of it.
Opinions, perceptions, attitudes etc. Assigning numbers or symbols to characteristics
according to rules. Scaling Creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located "Figurative labeling scheme in which the numbers
serve only as labels or tags for identifying and
classifying objects." A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to
objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects
possess some characteristic. *the object ranked first has more of the characteristic than the object
ranked second, but it is not said whether the object ranked second is a
close or poor second. Numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal
values in the characteristic being measured. Zero point not fixed. *Here you can compare the distance between objects Possesses all the properties of the other three
scales, and has an absolute zero point. Comparative scales involve direct comparison of stimulus objects. Choosing the most preferred option
among a set of items
Ranking items vs. Measurement and Scaling-
Noncomparative scaling techniques Each item is scaled independently
of other items in the set, only one at
a time. Continuous Rating Scale Likert Scale Semantic Differential Scale Stapel scale can be analysed item by item or by a
total score summating all the items 5 or 7 points are common. Scoring depends on the loading of the
statement. 7 points, bound at each end by one of two bipolar adjectives Non-probability sampling: Probability sampling: Which variables do I need?? Hypothesis: People who drive fast are less intelligent than people who keep to the speed limits. Measurements: People's driving speed Measurements of speed
at a checkpoint Measurement of IQ? Netnography Rating of cities/
on the site cost of accommodation Netnography is a type of ethnography research done with information which is attainable online. It can be carried out in a number of ways, however we are focussing on extracting information from online reviews. Text mining
Recurring themes Differences from a questionnaire:
- we are limited by the existing data
- we have to ensure a fit between study and data
- we cannot ask for clarification
- we have to deal with missing data
- we have to use the scales that are there What information can we get?
Which measurements are used?
Which intervals can we see?