Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Why Nutrition? Killer at Large Version

A prezi of my path in podcasting.
by

D.J. Hennager

on 5 October 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Why Nutrition? Killer at Large Version

2. The psychology of nutrition.
Killer at Large
Who Makes Your Food and Why
Why Do You Eat What You Eat?
Behavior or Genetics?
Title 5
5. The nature of science.
Classroom Description
Our understanding changes.
Body Mass Index
4. Nutrients and disease.
Diet and Health: Why Care?
Nutrition Status Assessments
Proteins
Lipids

Carbohydrates
3. The role of government in nutrition.
Killer at Large
Government, I need more information or my choice.
Consumer Concerns
Title 4
Title 6
6. Embracing emerging knowledge.
Diigo
Sugar or Fat?
Random Science
?
?
?
1. Basic Nutrition
DRIs
Types of Appetite
Variety, Balance and Moderation
Malnutrition
Different Nutrient Break-downs
Nutrition in Your Life
Why Study Nutrition?
What psychology does Brooke experience?
Image vs. health
Parental roles in mental health.
Short term solutions to long term problems.
Do you think Brooke is genetically predisposed: Genetics loads the gun but behavior pulls the trigger.
After the surgery, the doctor comments in a way that suggests Brooke should still not be happy with where she is.
Should labeling be mandatory?

What are the economic impacts of obesity. Are they shared costs to all and thus fall under protecting us from each other?
Is obesity a crime on the body?

Short term vs. Long term.
Type 2 Diabetes
Heart Disease
Kidney disease
Healthy eating makes you feel 14 years younger.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7174665.stm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calorie_restriction
Brainstorm: What are those regrets?
Brainstorm: Are there other "disciplines?" Keep yourself informed, etc.
Healthcare spending: Are we wasting money on preventable diseases?
Are we victims of our evolutionary brains?
Sugar is hard to get so get it when you can.
Food is hard to get so see it, eat it.
If we eat for taste, will we keep eating more sugar and more fat?
Do marketers know more about our behavior than we do and thus take advantage of us?
The changing American diet, with wealth comes access to foods we like.
Making food taste better can be done cheaply by simply adding fat and salt. This creates a socioeconomic split; food that tastes good due to fat and salt for the poor and food that tastes good with spices and selection for taste for those that can afford it.
If our weight is our choice, then what can be done still given that 2/3 of people are not making the weight? Is the weight wrong (see more in step 5, the nature of science).
Give you the facts, then you as citizens of a democracy, must take action.


“Government exists to protect us from each other. Where government has gone beyond its limits is in deciding to protect us from ourselves.”
― Ronald Reagan


Health-care insurance.
Fuel costs
Airline tickets
Car insurance?
Others?
Do we need protection from marketers? Trans fats, HFCS, is sugar addicting and should be regulated?
Changes in just the last 20 years.
What other things may cause obesity?
Are we even close to knowing?
Sleep
Gut Flora
Bacteria
Food Subsidies
Farm subsidies promote corn. Corn promotion increases HFCS availability. HFCS increases sugar in our diet (we now put sugar in foods that never had sugar (bread, etc).
Farm subsidies promote dairy.
Why don't we subsidize farmers markets?
In this ultra stimulated, always on society, I want it now. I don't have time to walk and I don't have time to exercise. I need a screen in front of my face.
Should we “stop the pop?”

"Healthier for you"

Free gyms

Nationalized NuVal System

National My Fitness Pal system where all nutrition information is available.
California tried to vote to label all GMOs but the vote failed.
New York City regulates a lot.

Trans Fats
Latch On
Portion Size of Pop
Should there be more restrictions on WIC?
Should we regulate advertising?

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704288304576171251689944350.html
Should the government take a more active role in our health?

http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/organicreviewappendices.pdf
Subsidies encourage more food, not higher quality food. Could this lead to malnutrition if we eat enough but the food is not nutrient dense?
http://www.iowahealthieststate.com/
What is Nutrition:
The science of foods and the substances they contain

What is food?
Derived from plant or animal sources
Provide energy and nutrients
Used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair

Essential versus Non-essential

Some substances are needed for life, but may not need to be in your diet (because you can make them from other nutrients)

L-carnitine
Essential:
You must have this in your diet.
Non-Essential:
You can make the nutrient.
Macro vs. Micronutrients
Macronutrients:
you need a lot of macronutrients like carbohydrates, fat, and protein.

Micronutrients:
You need less of things like vitamins and minerals and they are called micronutrients.

Inorganic vs. Organic

Organic nutrients contain the element carbon


Inorganic molecules contain no carbon
Function of Nutrients:
Energy
Nutrients
Classes of Nutrients
Six classes of nutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Fat
Water

Six classes of
nutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Vitamins
Minerals
Fat
Water
Malnutrition:
too little or too much of one or more nutrients or energy
Nutrient Deficiency:
Undernutrition
Excess of Nutrient or energy:
Overnutrition

Ethnic heritage or tradition


Food Choices

Habit
I eat spaghetti 5-7 times a week.
I used to be a poor stay-at-home dad.
Now that I am not as poor, I put parmesan on it .


Food Choices

Positive and negative associations



More Food Choices

Availability
How many of you are going to eat at Hardee’s today because it is just down the street?


Food Choices

Social interactions


Food Choices

Emotional comfort


More Food Choices

Personal preference
How many different foods do you think you really eat?
I would say that 75% of my meals come from 1 of 15 choices.



Food Choices

More Food Choices

Values



http://www.wisegeek.com/what-does-200-calories-look-like.htm

Types of Nutrition Studies
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
Developed in response to the widespread food limitations created by World War II.
Recommendations for intake of kcalories and nutrients at risk for deficiency - protein, vitamins, and minerals.

http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=4&tax_level=1&tax_subject=242

We will draw out the DRIs in class.
Food Guides
Food Labels
http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/LabelingNutrition/ucm275409.htm

Let's Draw this out with examples.
Vitamins
https://elearning.kirkwood.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-k0469216/_assoc/95095D8566094FA591E7B32F952A64EB/Nutrition_Smolin_Lecture_4_Carbohydratesb.pptx
https://elearning.kirkwood.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-k0469216/_assoc/5BF30413FFA947C6BC265412760F3FCD/Nutrition_Smolin_Lecture_4_Lipids.pptx
https://elearning.kirkwood.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-k0469216/_assoc/0F6B890FCB0247CFBD6E340CAC658B67/DJH_Nutrition_06_Proteins_and_Amino_Acidsf.pptx
Water Soluble
Fat Soluble
https://elearning.kirkwood.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-k0469216/_assoc/9DD243E3D3E843ACBF46DB3368A2718C/DJH_Nutrition_11_Fat-Soluble_Vitamins.ppt
https://elearning.kirkwood.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-k0469216/_assoc/4ADE098823E646BFB056BC1F52A72B58/DJH_Nutrition_10_Water_Soluble_Vitaminsb.ppt
https://elearning.kirkwood.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-k0469216/_assoc/CE1EA064AE0E4B9F9BB0A14627B0C2A6/DJH_Nutrition_12Consumer_Concernsh.pptx
Anecdotal
Soft Science
(Minimal Peer Review)
Hard Science
(Extensive Peer Review)
Why research?
8 glasses of water
http://www.asn-online.org/press/pdf/2008-Media/Water%20Study.pdf
The Mozart Effect
MMR and Autism
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(97)11096-0/fulltext
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15877763
E=mc
Nothing travels faster than light.
2
Science has multiple levels of validity. Often, scientifiy validity does not correlate with public perception of validity.
Red Bull and CVD
http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=1185172kt700868t&size=largest
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=red%20bull%20energy%20drink
Eat a big breakfast to lose weight
http://www.google.com/search?gcx=c&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8&q=eat+a+big+breakfast+to+lose+weight
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034667/pdf/1475-2891-10-5.pdf
Atkins
Diet
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa055317
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341711
See the inherent bias in research.
Examples of what we can do.
Handout
Cardiac Metrics
HR
BP
MAP
Blood Sugar
Lactic Acid
Intelligence tests
Stroop
Reaction Times
Lumosity
On-line Flash
Multi-tasking game
Wii
Athletics
50 yd dash
Time to fatigue
Mile time
Weight lifted
Biopac
Resp. Volumes
EEG
ECG
Polygraph
Resp. Rate
Variables tested
Energy Drinks
Caffeine
Tea vs. Coffee
Aromatherapy
Massage
Types of sugar (HFCS, etc.)
Color therapy
Music effects
Students want a positive results. So do scientists, and it introduces a bias. The study "MMR and Autism are Unrelated" would not have been published. Similarly, many studies have shown no benefit to SSRIs. But, since they are not published, they do not counter the studies that show SSRIs are beneficial.
Anecdote has a loud voice
At a table with 4 people drinking Red Bull, the person who reacts the strongest will have the loudest voice. Meanwhile, there are three people saying "I don't like the taste." Do a PubMed search on Red Bull to see how little science has been done on energy drinks while everyone has heard "those will kill you."
Humans are incredibly complex. While large numbers of subjects in studies smooth out fluctuations, when it comes to you and your patient, you should know those fluctuations are there. There have been many, many BMI vs. mortality graphs drawn including or excluding smoking, known disease, socioeconomic status. If you remove SES, the curve is flat between 23 and 32 (i.e., there isn't a large difference). It also means that pharmaceuticals will have complex reactions.
In making presentations, you emphasize strengths and minimize weaknesses to present your results in the best light. Scientists do this too and it is why you don't want to always trust abstracts and newspaper interpretations.
If you don't get the result you expect, you assume that there was something wrong in the way the experiment was done. This introduces a confirmation bias making it hard to contradict "known" results.
Science is evolving. When student's have completed the research, they should have a good idea of the strengths, weaknessess and future directions. Since science is ever evolving, one must be ever vigilant and attentive.
Lipid Theory
http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa055317
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341711
Lowering salt consumption lowers mortality.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21731062
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=its-time-to-end-the-war-on-salt
Example PowerPoints and Papers
The human body is incredibly complex. Duh, I know. But, did you know that taking birth control increases your eye blink rate (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7822673#)? Did you know that chewing gum increases IQ scores? There are connections that are difficult to predict. That is worrisome given how medical interventions start pulling on connections. The only way to get to the bottom of this complexity is scientific research. But, scientific research has weaknesses, it is a process that can provide insights but it can also produce false information.
The placebo effect is quite strong. Anti-depressants have rarely been shown to have an effect over placebo but at times 1 in 5 have been on SSRIs.
Vit. C and the cold
Studies outside of science
Do parachutes work?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC300808/
Does smoking cause cancer in humans?
To Encourage Biking, Lose the Helmets
http://tech.slashdot.org/story/12/10/02/0111200/to-encourage-biking-lose-the-helmets
http://authoritynutrition.com/mainstream-nutrition-has-failed-miserably/
http://dermatologytimes.modernmedicine.com/dermatology-times/news/study-benefits-sun-exposure-may-outweigh-risks
http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2013/04/10/Why-red-meat-may-clog-arteries/UPI-55871365572819/
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-06/salt-may-boost-immune-diseases-through-inflammation.html
https://www.diigo.com/user/hennagerdj
https://groups.diigo.com/group/djh-nutrition
The Digestive System
Metabolism
Title 6
Diet and Health: Why Care?
Full transcript