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Why Nutrition? Killer at Large Version
Transcript of Why Nutrition? Killer at Large Version
Killer at Large
Who Makes Your Food and Why
Why Do You Eat What You Eat?
Behavior or Genetics?
5. The nature of science.
Our understanding changes.
Body Mass Index
4. Nutrients and disease.
Diet and Health: Why Care?
Nutrition Status Assessments
3. The role of government in nutrition.
Killer at Large
Government, I need more information or my choice.
6. Embracing emerging knowledge.
Sugar or Fat?
1. Basic Nutrition
Types of Appetite
Variety, Balance and Moderation
Different Nutrient Break-downs
Nutrition in Your Life
Why Study Nutrition?
What psychology does Brooke experience?
Image vs. health
Parental roles in mental health.
Short term solutions to long term problems.
Do you think Brooke is genetically predisposed: Genetics loads the gun but behavior pulls the trigger.
After the surgery, the doctor comments in a way that suggests Brooke should still not be happy with where she is.
Should labeling be mandatory?
What are the economic impacts of obesity. Are they shared costs to all and thus fall under protecting us from each other?
Is obesity a crime on the body?
Short term vs. Long term.
Type 2 Diabetes
Healthy eating makes you feel 14 years younger.
Brainstorm: What are those regrets?
Brainstorm: Are there other "disciplines?" Keep yourself informed, etc.
Healthcare spending: Are we wasting money on preventable diseases?
Are we victims of our evolutionary brains?
Sugar is hard to get so get it when you can.
Food is hard to get so see it, eat it.
If we eat for taste, will we keep eating more sugar and more fat?
Do marketers know more about our behavior than we do and thus take advantage of us?
The changing American diet, with wealth comes access to foods we like.
Making food taste better can be done cheaply by simply adding fat and salt. This creates a socioeconomic split; food that tastes good due to fat and salt for the poor and food that tastes good with spices and selection for taste for those that can afford it.
If our weight is our choice, then what can be done still given that 2/3 of people are not making the weight? Is the weight wrong (see more in step 5, the nature of science).
Give you the facts, then you as citizens of a democracy, must take action.
“Government exists to protect us from each other. Where government has gone beyond its limits is in deciding to protect us from ourselves.”
― Ronald Reagan
Do we need protection from marketers? Trans fats, HFCS, is sugar addicting and should be regulated?
Changes in just the last 20 years.
What other things may cause obesity?
Are we even close to knowing?
Farm subsidies promote corn. Corn promotion increases HFCS availability. HFCS increases sugar in our diet (we now put sugar in foods that never had sugar (bread, etc).
Farm subsidies promote dairy.
Why don't we subsidize farmers markets?
In this ultra stimulated, always on society, I want it now. I don't have time to walk and I don't have time to exercise. I need a screen in front of my face.
Should we “stop the pop?”
"Healthier for you"
Nationalized NuVal System
National My Fitness Pal system where all nutrition information is available.
California tried to vote to label all GMOs but the vote failed.
New York City regulates a lot.
Portion Size of Pop
Should there be more restrictions on WIC?
Should we regulate advertising?
Should the government take a more active role in our health?
Subsidies encourage more food, not higher quality food. Could this lead to malnutrition if we eat enough but the food is not nutrient dense?
What is Nutrition:
The science of foods and the substances they contain
What is food?
Derived from plant or animal sources
Provide energy and nutrients
Used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair
Essential versus Non-essential
Some substances are needed for life, but may not need to be in your diet (because you can make them from other nutrients)
You must have this in your diet.
You can make the nutrient.
Macro vs. Micronutrients
you need a lot of macronutrients like carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
You need less of things like vitamins and minerals and they are called micronutrients.
Inorganic vs. Organic
Organic nutrients contain the element carbon
Inorganic molecules contain no carbon
Function of Nutrients:
Classes of Nutrients
Six classes of nutrients
Six classes of
too little or too much of one or more nutrients or energy
Excess of Nutrient or energy:
Ethnic heritage or tradition
I eat spaghetti 5-7 times a week.
I used to be a poor stay-at-home dad.
Now that I am not as poor, I put parmesan on it .
Positive and negative associations
More Food Choices
How many of you are going to eat at Hardee’s today because it is just down the street?
More Food Choices
How many different foods do you think you really eat?
I would say that 75% of my meals come from 1 of 15 choices.
More Food Choices
Types of Nutrition Studies
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
Developed in response to the widespread food limitations created by World War II.
Recommendations for intake of kcalories and nutrients at risk for deficiency - protein, vitamins, and minerals.
We will draw out the DRIs in class.
Let's Draw this out with examples.
(Minimal Peer Review)
(Extensive Peer Review)
8 glasses of water
The Mozart Effect
MMR and Autism
Nothing travels faster than light.
Science has multiple levels of validity. Often, scientifiy validity does not correlate with public perception of validity.
Red Bull and CVD
Eat a big breakfast to lose weight
See the inherent bias in research.
Examples of what we can do.
50 yd dash
Time to fatigue
Tea vs. Coffee
Types of sugar (HFCS, etc.)
Students want a positive results. So do scientists, and it introduces a bias. The study "MMR and Autism are Unrelated" would not have been published. Similarly, many studies have shown no benefit to SSRIs. But, since they are not published, they do not counter the studies that show SSRIs are beneficial.
Anecdote has a loud voice
At a table with 4 people drinking Red Bull, the person who reacts the strongest will have the loudest voice. Meanwhile, there are three people saying "I don't like the taste." Do a PubMed search on Red Bull to see how little science has been done on energy drinks while everyone has heard "those will kill you."
Humans are incredibly complex. While large numbers of subjects in studies smooth out fluctuations, when it comes to you and your patient, you should know those fluctuations are there. There have been many, many BMI vs. mortality graphs drawn including or excluding smoking, known disease, socioeconomic status. If you remove SES, the curve is flat between 23 and 32 (i.e., there isn't a large difference). It also means that pharmaceuticals will have complex reactions.
In making presentations, you emphasize strengths and minimize weaknesses to present your results in the best light. Scientists do this too and it is why you don't want to always trust abstracts and newspaper interpretations.
If you don't get the result you expect, you assume that there was something wrong in the way the experiment was done. This introduces a confirmation bias making it hard to contradict "known" results.
Science is evolving. When student's have completed the research, they should have a good idea of the strengths, weaknessess and future directions. Since science is ever evolving, one must be ever vigilant and attentive.
Lowering salt consumption lowers mortality.
Example PowerPoints and Papers
The human body is incredibly complex. Duh, I know. But, did you know that taking birth control increases your eye blink rate (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7822673#)? Did you know that chewing gum increases IQ scores? There are connections that are difficult to predict. That is worrisome given how medical interventions start pulling on connections. The only way to get to the bottom of this complexity is scientific research. But, scientific research has weaknesses, it is a process that can provide insights but it can also produce false information.
The placebo effect is quite strong. Anti-depressants have rarely been shown to have an effect over placebo but at times 1 in 5 have been on SSRIs.
Vit. C and the cold
Studies outside of science
Do parachutes work?
Does smoking cause cancer in humans?
To Encourage Biking, Lose the Helmets
The Digestive System
Diet and Health: Why Care?