Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Scientific Writing& Components of Research Paper

Free & Reusable Underwater Prezi template. More Prezi templates from Prezibase.com
by

Gehad El Ashal

on 16 July 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Scientific Writing& Components of Research Paper

PRINCIPLES of SCIENTIFIC WRITING
COMPONENTS of RESEARCH PAPER

Learning Objectives:
1- What is Scientific Writing.
2- Why We need Scientific Writing.
3-How to Be a Good Writer.
4- Principles of Effective Writing.
5- Structure of Biomedical Research Paper.
6- Steps of Writing Process.
7- Recommended Order for Writing an original Manuscript.
8- Publishing and Plagiarism .
What is Scientific Writing?!
Coherent
Structured

Based on Facts

Flawless
Why We need it ?!
1- Communicate Opinions and Facts.
2- It is our Platform to Spread our Work.
3- Gain perspective on a problem.
4- Record and Document.
What Makes a Good Writer ?!
Reasons to be a good writer:
Structure of Research paper:
Abstract
Text "IMRaD"
References
Appendices
- Introduction
- Methodology
- Result
- Discussion
Introduction

What we know.
what we don't know.
The aim.
Methodology
Design.
Setting (Where).
Time (when).
Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria of Population.
Sample Size.
Intervention.
Outcome Measurement.
Data collection and Data Entry.
Statistical Analysis.
Results
The most
IMPORTANT

part in your paper.
The
ANSWER to the AIM
your research.
- Details of the study sample.
- Univariate analysis (Aim of your Study).
- Bivariate Analysis.
- Multivariate Analysis.
- Figures, Charts and Tables.
Discussion
Interpretation of the findings.
Significance of the results "Statistical&Clinical".
How much the result support or oppose the current literature?.
Strength points and Limitations.
Generalization.
Affection on medical practice.
(How it will add to the current knowledge and change the health care)
Impact on future research directions.
Conclusion.
Abstract
Structured
Non structured
Introduction or Aim.
Methods.
Results.
Conclusion.
Specific

Aim
Introduction:
Methods:
Study Design, Sample size, Where, How, Data analysis and All important measurement techniques.
Results:
- Be deep better than broad.
- And Describe:
Main Findings.
Effect size not P value only.
Key Results in words and numbers.
Conclusion:
Describe the clinical impact.
If there is future research is needed.
-You Can use we and I.
#Use of his/her >> Them.
#Negatives.
#Repetition.
#Abbreviations.
Principles of effective writing

One
paragraph =
One
idea.
Say what you mean. "
Word order and meaning
"
Create
Logical Flow
between sentences.
Use
Common Words
rather than complex
Don't overuse
But or And
in starting sentences.
Avoid
Repetition.
Eliminate negatives.
Omit needless prepositions
Tips For You:-
Steps of Writing Process:
Pre-write "Collection &Outlines".
(70%)

First Draft "Collecting Ideas together& Organization".
(10%)

Revision.
(20%)
Edit after feedback.
Publishing and Presentation.
Recommended Order for Writing an Original Manuscript:
1- Tables and Figures.
"
Foundation of the Study".
2- Result.
3-Method.
4- Introduction.
5-Discussion.
6-Abstract.
Rules of Numbers:-
What Do You Think ?!!
Data (Is/Are)?!
Random Sample (Is/Are) ?!
Compared to vs Compared with ?!
Affect vs effect ?!
Parallel Sentences:

"Bussel et al is Brilliant, original
and will work"!!
TENESE
Introduction:

-Present >> It is known
-Past >> We investigated.
-Past>> Patients were randomized.
-Past for result>> we found
-Present for referring to tables or graph>> table shows.
-Present to answer the research Q and discuss the literature >> Our findings suggests.
-Past to discuss the result.
Methods:
Results:
Discussion:
"Make your Paper ENJOYABLE & ATTRACTIVE"
** Acknowledgment:-

- For Financial Support, Lab, Department, Trainees, Patient clinics and Data collectors, Drug Company.....
- Authorship justification and state of contribution of each author.
** Conflict of Interest.
** References.
** Funding
Publishing Your Work
Conferences Abstracts.
Journal Article
-Peer Reviewed.
-Predatory.
UNIFORM REQUIREMENTS
Title Page.
Abstract.
Text.
Acknowledgment, Conflict of interest, funding.
References.
Tables, Figures.
How to select Journal for mission of your manuscript ?!
1- Expert or colleagues.
2- References.
3-Searching PubMed by your keywords.
4- Journal finder tool.
Protocol
1- Scientific Integrity.
2- Ethical Approval.
3- Funding.
4- International Registration.
(Clinal trials. gov, PROSPERO,..)
Numbers less than 10 are words.
Number 10 or more are numbers.
Words not numbers begin a sentence.
Be consistent in lists of numbers.
Numbers less than 1 begins with a zero.
Do not use a space between numbers and its percent sign.
Use one space between No. and its unit.

Gehad Gamal El Ashal.


MBBCh, Kasr Al-Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University.
Co-Founder of EMRA.
Head of MRS Academy Wave 4" Medical Research Society".
E-mail: Gehadelashal@gmail.com Gehadelashal@yahoo.com

Title & Abstract
Types of The Title:
Is It?
Inborn talent?

Years of English and humanities classes?

An artistic nature?

The influence of alcohol and drugs?

Divine inspiration?
No it is;
Having something to say.

Logical thinking.

A few simple, learnable Rules of style

Read, pay attention, and imitate.

Revise. Nobody gets it perfect on the first try
Good writing can be learned!
What is Scientific Writing?!
Communicates an idea Clearly and Effectively

Elegant and Stylish
Productive time with Less Frustration

Peers will take you more seriously

More Likely to Publish

More Likely to get a grant
Principles of effective writing
Should it be always like this?
These findings imply that the rates of ascorbate radical
production and its recycling via dehydroascorbate
reductatse to replenish the ascorbate pool are equivalent at the lower irradiance, but not equivalent at higher irradiance with the rate of ascorbate radical production exceeding its recycling back to ascorbate.
What bout this?
“These findings imply that, at low irradiation, ascorbate radicals are produced and recycled at the same rate, but at high irradiation, they are produced faster than they can be recycled back to ascorbate.”
Is this sentence readable?
„Is it written to inform or to obscure?
-Complex ideas don’t require complex language.

-Scientific writing should be easy and even enjoyable to read!
Put action in verbs
Don’t bury the Main Verb
Use the active voice
Dysregulation of physiologic microRNA (miR) activity
has been shown
to play an important role in tumor initiation and progression, including gliomagenesis. Therefore, molecular species that can regulate miR activity on their target RNAs without affecting the expression of relevant mature miRs may play equally relevant roles in cancer.
Cut the Clutters
Dysregulation of
physiologic
microRNA (miR) activity has been shown to play an important role in tumor initiation and progression, including
gliomagenesis.
Therefore, molecular species that can regulate
miR
activity on their target RNAs without affecting the expression of relevant mature
miRs
may play equally relevant roles in cancer.
In a parallel world!
Changes in microRNA expression play a role in cancer, including glioma. Therefore, events that disrupt microRNAs from binding to their target RNAs may also promote cancer.
The secret of good writing is to strip every sentence to its
Cleanest Components
. Every word that serves no function, every long word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what—these are the thousand and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence.
Dysregulation
of physiologic microRNA (miR) activity has been shown to play an important role in tumor
initiation
and
progression
, including gliomagenesis. Therefore, molecular species that can regulate miR activity on their target RNAs without affecting the expression of relevant mature miRs may play equally relevant roles in cancer.
Dysregulation of physiologic microRNA (miR) activity has been shown to play an important role in tumor initiation and progression, including gliomagenesis. Therefore,
molecular species
that can regulate miR activity on their target RNAs without affecting the expression of relevant mature miRs
may play equally
relevant roles in cancer.
In addition!
“This paper provides a review of the basic tenets of cancer biology study design, using as examples studies that illustrate the methodologic challenges or that demonstrate successful solutions to the difficulties inherent in biological research.”

This paper reviews cancer biology study design, using examples that illustrate specific challenges and solution
“As it is well known, increased athletic activity has been related to a profile of lower CV risk, lower BP, and improved muscular and cardio-respiratory performance.”
Increased athletic activity lowers CV risk and blood pressure, and improves fitness.
“Brain injury incidence shows two peak periods in almost all reports: rates are the highest in young people and the elderly.”
“Brain injury incidence peaks in the young and the elderly.”
common DEAD Words
As it is well known
As it has been shown
It can be regarded that
Muscular and cardiorespiratory performance
illustrate/demonstrate (Repetitive words)
very, really, quite, basically, generally, etc.
The expected prevalence of mental retardation, based on the assumption that intelligence is normally distributed, is about 2.5%.
The expected prevalence of mental retardation, if intelligence is normally distributed, is 2.5%.
In nutshell!
Be vigilant and Ruthless in making your sentence in its Cleanest Form
“I have only made this letter rather long because I have not had time to make it shorter.”
Increased promoter occupancy and transcriptional activation of p21 and other target genes were observed.
We observed
increased promoter occupancy and transcriptional activation of p21 and other target genes.
Learning Objectives:
1- What is Scientific Writing.
2- Why We need Scientific Writing.
3-How to Be a Good Writer.
4- Principles of Effective Writing.
5- Structure of Biomedical Research Paper.
6- Steps of Writing Process.
7- Recommended Order for Writing an original Manuscript.
8- Publishing and Plagiarism .
Learning Objectives:
1- What is Scientific Writing.
2- Why We need Scientific Writing.
3-How to Be a Good Writer.
4- Principles of Effective Writing.
5- Structure of Biomedical Research Paper.
6- Steps of Writing Process.
7- Recommended Order for Writing an original Manuscript.
8- Publishing and Plagiarism .
pre-writing step
Get organized first!

Don’t try to write and gather information simultaneously!

Gather and organize information BEFORE writing the first draft.

Spend more time organizing and less time writing. It’s just plain less painful!
Writing the first draft
Don’t be a perfectionist!

The goal of the first draft is to get the ideas down in complete sentences in order.

Focus on logical organization more than sentence-level details.
Learning Objectives:
1- What is Scientific Writing.
2- Why We need Scientific Writing.
3-How to Be a Good Writer.
4- Principles of Effective Writing.
4- Structure of Biomedical Research Paper.
5- Steps of Writing Process.
6- Recommended Order for Writing an original Manuscript.
8- Publishing and Plagiarism .
The Revision Step
It’s also difficult to study the biology because the brain is so inaccessible. Cancer scientists can take out a tumor and look directly at the cells, but autism researchers cannot directly study brain cells (except on autopsy), let alone developing brain cells. Stanford is on the cutting edge of solving this problem—in fact, Dolmetsch’s solution is so innovative it seems straight out of a science fiction novel.
It’s also difficult to access the brain. Scientists can slice cancer cells out of a tumor and directly study them, but they can’t just scoop cells out of the brain, let alone the developing brain. Stanford is on the cutting edge of solving this problem—in fact, Dolmetsch’s solution seems straight out of a science fiction novel.
Learning Objectives:
1- What is Scientific Writing.
2- Why We need Scientific Writing.
3-How to Be a Good Writer.
4- Principles of Effective Writing.
4- Structure of Biomedical Research Paper.
5- Steps of Writing Process.
6- Recommended Order for Writing an original Manuscript.
7- Publishing and Plagiarism.
Types of Journal Articles
Original Research
Reviews
Letters to the Editor
Case Reports
Commentaries
Opinion pieces/editorials
Explanatory pieces/columns
Authorship Criteria
Any author listed on the paper’s title page
should take public responsibility for its content
Order
implies authors’ relative contributions (with exception of the senior author position).
Papers may have
Dual first authors
alphabetical
order may be used if researchers have
contributed equally

Large working groups may be cited as a
Group
The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria:

Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work;
AND
Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
Final approval of the version to be published
; AND
Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
plagiarism
Passing off other people’s writing (or tables and figures) as your own
Cutting and pasting
Slightly rewriting or re-arranging others’ words
"Borrowing” material from sites like Wikipedia
HOW TO AVOID plagiarism

You must understand the material well enough to put it in your own words!
Work from memory
Draw your own conclusions
Do not mimic the original author’s sentence structure or just re-arrange the original author’s words.
Avoid Self-plagiarism and Duplication
Full transcript