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Q32M02 Investigating English Language Stylistics

Q32M02 All presentations for Autumn 2013
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Stephen Pihlaja

on 5 April 2015

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Transcript of Q32M02 Investigating English Language Stylistics

Week 1
Week 2
Week 3
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Week 7
Week 8
Week 9
Week 10
Week 11
Week 12
READING WEEK
Investigating English Language: Stylistics
Dr Stephen Pihlaja
Q32M02
University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
Autumn 2013
Presentations
Activity
How do you know this is a poem?
Who are 'they' in the first line? How do you know?
What time of day does this poem happen in?
What word(s) connect lines 3 and 4?
What word(s) connect the first and second sections of the poem?
What connections between the meanings of words and sounds can you see?
The Dead
1 The dead are always looking down on us, they say.
2 while we are putting on our shoes or making a sandwich,
3 they are looking down through the glass bottom boats of heaven
4 as they row themselves slowly through eternity.

5 They watch the tops of our heads moving below on earth,
6 and when we lie down in a field or on a couch,
7 drugged perhaps by the hum of a long afternoon,
8 they think we are looking back at them,
9 which makes them lift their oars and fall silent
10 and wait, like parents, for us to close our eyes.
Investigating English Language: Stylistics
by Billy Collins
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iuTNdHadwbk)
Going Forward
Read the course brochure
Come to class
Interact
Do your work on time
Think broadly
Pass with flying colours
Module overview
Key Text
Simpson, P. (2004) Stylistics: A resource book for students. Abingdon: Routledge. (E-book available)
What is Stylistics?
The use of linguistic tools to study literature.
Two minute task
Define 'literature'.
Theory based
Empirical
Systematic
Doing stylistics
involves close observation to identify patterns
What role does punctuation play in the first poem? How do you know how to read the poem and/or should the poem even be read? 
What grammatical 'errors' are in the second poem? What effect to they have on the reading of the poem? 
How do the grammatical features of the poem relate to the semantic and pragmatic meanings of words and the poem as a whole?
Activity 2
there are so many tictoc
clocks everywhere telling people
what toctic time it is for
tictic instance five toc minutes toc
past six tic
Spring is not regulated and does
not get out of order nor do
its hands a little jerking move
over numbers slowly
we do not
wind it up it has no weights
springs wheels inside of
its slender self no indeed dear
nothing of the kind.
(So,when kiss Spring comes
we'll kiss each kiss other on kiss the kiss
lips because tic clocks toc don't make
a toctic difference
to kisskiss you and to
kiss me)

http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/21421
9.
by E. E. Cummings
r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r
by E. E. Cummings
r-p-o-p-h-e-s-s-a-g-r
who
a)s w(e loo)k
upnowgath
PPEGORHRASS
eringint(o-
aThe):l
eA
!p:
S a
(r
rIvInG .gRrEaPsPhOs)
to
rea(be)rran(com)gi(e)ngly
,grasshopper;
http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15402
6 types of grammar
(Crystal 1987)
Descriptive
Pedagogical
Prescriptive
Reference
Theoretical
Traditional
Activity 1
What is grammar?
 In what ways can grammar be 'good' or 'bad'?
 Do grammar 'rules' apply in literature (poetry, short stories, novels)? In what ways do they apply, and in what ways can they be exploited?
Grammar
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/cummings/images/eec_3.jpg
Review
Stylistics is...
Q32M02 Week 1
Describing Grammar
Structures
Sentence
Clause
Phrase
Word
Morpheme
Subject
Predicator
Complement
Adjunct
Sentences
Examples
Key Point
Order matters.
Hills Like White Elephants
Ernest Hemingway

The man called "Listen" through the curtain. The woman came out from the bar.
"Four reales."
"We want two Anis del Toro."
"With water? "
"Do you want it with water?"
"I don't know," the girl said. "Is it good with water?"
"It's all right."
"You want them with water?" asked the woman.
"Yes, with water."
"It tastes like licorice," the girl said and put the glass down.
"That's the way with everything."
"Yes," said the girl. "Everything tastes of licorice. Especially all the things you've waited so long for, like absinthe."
"Oh, cut it out."
"You started it," the girl said. "I was being amused. I was having a fine time."
"Well, let's try and have a fine time."
"All right. I was trying. I said the mountains looked like white elephants. Wasn't that bright?"
"That was bright."
"I wanted to try this new drink. That's all we do, isn't it--look at things and try new drinks?"
"I guess so."
http://www.has.vcu.edu/eng/webtext/hills/hills.htm
What are the differences between spoken and written language?
In what ways is spoken language organised differently than written?
How is spoken language portrayed in artistic works? Is it different from transcripts of spoken talk? In what ways?
Activity 1
Identify the action in each of the turns of the conversation. Does the way the conversation is organised tell you anything about who has power in the conversation?
In what ways is this similar or dissimilar to real spoken conversation?
What effect does Hemingway's ordering of the conversation have on the reader? What is the relationship with the sequence of the conversation and the 'meaning'?
Activity 2
Turn-taking
Sequence
Identifying/repairing problems
Adjacency
Employing gaze/movement
Key Concepts
http://www.vol1brooklyn.com/2012/03/16/your-hemingway-fetish-is-a-little-much/
Conversation Analysis & Dialogue
Doing Analysis
Review
What events happen in the section of the novel?
 How is the narrator oriented towards time?
In what ways does this paragraph follow (and not follow) Labov's narrative structure?
I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up. I had just gotten over a serious illness that I won’t bother to talk about, except that it had something to do with the miserably weary split-up and my feeling that everything was dead. With the coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life you could call my life on the road. Before that I’d often dreamed of going West to see the country, always vaguely planning and never taking off. Dean is the perfect guy for the road because he actually was born on the road, when his parents were passing through Salt Lake City in 1926, in a jalopy, on their way to Los Angeles. First reports of him came to me through Chad King, who’d shown me a few letters from him written in a New Mexico reform school. I was tremendously interested in the letters because they so naively and sweetly asked Chad to teach him all about Nietzsche and all the wonderful intellectual things that Chad knew. At one point Carlo and I talked about the letters and wondered if we would ever meet the strange Dean Moriarty. This is all far back, when Dean was not the way he is today, when he was a young jailkid shrouded in mystery. Then news came that Dean was out of reform school and was coming to New York for the first time; also there was talk that he had just married a girl called Marylou.
1. Abstract: “one or two clauses summarizing the whole story”
2. Orientation: “at the outset, it is necessary to identify in some way the time, place, persons and their activity or the situation”
3. Complicating Action: “a series of temporally ordered clauses which we may call narrative clauses”
4. Evaluation: “the means used by the narrator to indicate the point of the narrative, its raison d’être: why it was told, and what the narrator is getting at”

Types of evaluation:
External: “the narrator can stop the narrative, turn to the listener, and tell him what the point is:

Embedding: somebody says something. The narrator
quotes the sentiment as something occurring to him at the moment rather than addressing it to the listener
or quotes himself as addressing someone else
or introduces a third person who evaluates the antagonist’s actions

Evaluative action: tell what people did rather than what they said

Evaluation by suspension of the action: “the listener’s attention is suspended, and the resolution comes with much greater force”

5. Result/resolution: “the termination of the series of events in ‘complicating action’"
6.Coda: “signals that the narrative is finished... may also contain general observations or show the effects of the event on the narrator”
1: Narrative is the primary means of comprehension and expression for our experience of events changing over time.

2: Narrative time is subjective, not objective; elastic, not metronomic.

3: Event selection and event sequencing are two crucial functional elements of narrative construction, and they are reciprocally related to the subjective experience of time described in the narrative.

4: A narrative is re-presentation of reality from a particular perspective: reality reconfigured to express meaning.

5: Oral narratives always have structure. The prototypical six-part structure as described by Labov and Waletzky includes Abstract, Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution, and Coda.

6: In practice this structure is subject to reconfiguration as meaning is socially situated.

7: Narrative is implicated in the efficient organization and encoding of memory.

8: Narrative is implicated in planning and problem-solving abilities.

9: Following from the two points above, we can locate narrative at the heart of the learning process.
From Paul Hazel 'Introduction to Narrative' (pg. 8)

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  

 
 
 
 
 
 
Think of your favourite story or novel.
Can you think of the main events that happen in the story?
Could the events be changed around? How? How would changing the sequence of events change the meaning of the story?
 What relationships do the events have to each other?
Activity 1
Narrative (a Summary)
Labov's Narrative Structure
by Jack Keroac (First paragraph)
On the Road
Activity 2
Narrative Analysis
http://tinyurl.com/cnabtd3
http://www.paulhazel.com/blog/Introduction_To_Narrative.pdf
Narrative
Stylistics
Conversation Analysis
Applying to literature
Example
Review
Review
Review
A sociolinguistic model of narrative

(And what about the street fight?) Then - ah - well, street fight, the most important, lemme see. (You know, the one that you remember the most.) Well, I had quite a lot. Well, one, I think, was with a girl [laughter]. Like, I was a kid, you know.

And she was the baddest girl - the baddest girl in the neighborhood. If you didn=t bring her candy to school, she=d punch you in the mouth. And you had to kiss her when she [>d] tell you. This girl was only about twelve years old, man, but she was a killer. She didn=t take no junk. She whupped all her brothers.

And I came to school one day, and I didn=t have no money; my ma wouldnÕt give me no money. And I played hookies one day. First time I played hookies, man, put sump=n on me, so I said, you know, I=m not gonna play hookies no more, > cause I don=t want to get a whuppin=.

So I says to myself AWell, there=s gonna be times my mother won=t give me money because a poor family, and I can=t take this all - and so, you know - every time she don=t give me any money. So I say, well, I just gotta fight the girl. She gonna hafta whup me. I hope she don=t whup me.@

And I hit the girl: powwww!!
Example
http://www.postgradolinguistica.ucv.cl/dev/documentos/biblioteca_files/1.doc
Excerpt taken from Labov and Waletzky (2003)
Issues with a sociolinguistic perspective
Spontaneous vs planned text
Intentionality
Context
Interaction and engagement
Levels of analysis
Style & point of view
Without reading the review, what did you think this song about?
Are there lyrical elements that ‘transcend’ the context in which the song was written?
What effect does the context of Ocean’s letter have the interpretation of the lyrical elements of the song?
How does our cultural context influence the possible readings we might afford the song?
Analysis and Context
Bad Religion
List any contextual factors which could contribute to how a text is produced and read. Think about political contexts, social contexts, environmental contexts, etc.
How are the features of context seen in the writing of the text? In the interpretation of the text?
What tools does literary linguistics offer us for understanding how readers understand their own context through the text as well as the context the text creates?
Activity 1
Review of ‘Bad Religion’ in Pitchfork
http://pitchfork.com/reviews/tracks/13865-bad-religion/
Don't call it a coming out. Because the tone of the text-edit document read 'round the world last week felt so different from what we're used to when public figures decide to tell the world that they love people of the same gender: no trumpets, no confetti, no glossy magazine-cover smiles. No, the striking thing about Frank Ocean's poetic testimony about loving and losing a man was that it was a story without a happy ending, written by someone who didn't profess to have it all figured out but who was still searching, still hoping, still fumbling. Ocean's voice felt lonely, singular, and yet universally relatable.
The first few seconds of "Bad Religion" capture the chord that letter struck in your head when you first read it: a moaning organ echoing through an empty church, the kind of place you'd drag yourself to in the dead of a rock-bottom night to light a candle for someone you're not even sure is listening. "Taxi driver, be my shrink for an hour/ Leave the meter running…just outrun the demons, could you?" The driver replies with an "Allah Hu Akbar" that Ocean first takes as a curse, but then he realizes it's a blessing; his listener's empathy comes as a surprise. The most memorable line of that note was the first one, "Whoever you are, wherever you are…I'm starting to think we're a lot alike," and this song turns those words into feeling. "Bad Religion" is empathy made flesh: it's the most arresting song he's ever sung because everybody-- gay, straight or none of the above-- has had a night that sounds like this. If it doesn't bring you to your knees, check your pulse.
Bad Religion by Frank Ocean
http://rapgenius.com/Frank-ocean-bad-religion-lyrics


Taxi driver
Be my shrink for the hour
Leave the meter running
It's rush hour
So take the streets if you wanna
Just outrun the demons, could you

He said "Allahu akbar", I told him don't curse me
"Bo Bo, you need prayer" - I guess it couldn't hurt me
If it brings me to my knees
It's a bad religion
This unrequited love
To me it's nothing but a one-man cult
And cyanide in my styrofoam cup
I can never make him love me
Never make him love me

Love me, love me, love me, love me, love me, love me, love me love

[Verse 2]
Taxi driver
I swear I've got three lives
Balanced on my head like steak knives
I can't tell you the truth about my disguise
I can't trust no one
It's a bad religion
To be in love with someone
Who could never love you
I know
Only bad religion
Could have me feeling the way I do
What does discourse do?
TEUN A. VAN DIJK citing Fairclough and Wodak (1997: 271-80)
http://www.discourses.org/OldArticles/Critical%20discourse%20analysis.pdf
Review
Text
Reception
Exercise
Choose one semantic field and note all the words that belong in that field.
    
Are there any examples of anaphoric reference? What do they accomplish?
  
 What examples of substitution can you find?
A Hunger Artist
by Franz Kafka
So he lived for many years, with small regular intervals of recuperation, in visible glory, honored by the world, yet in spite of that, troubled in spirit, and all the more troubled because no-one would take his trouble seriously. What comfort could he possibly need? What more could he possibly wish for? And if some good-natured person, feeling sorry for him, tried to console him by pointing out that his melancholy was probably caused by fasting, it could happen, especially when he had been fasting for some time, that he reacted with an outburst of fury and to the general alarm began to shake the bars of his cage like a wild animal. Yet the impresario had a way of punishing these outbreaks which he rather enjoyed putting into operation. He would apologize publicly for the artist’s behaviour, which was only to be excused, he admitted, because of the irritability caused by fasting; a condition hardly to be understood by well-fed people; then by natural transition he went on to mention the artist’s equally incomprehensible boast that he could fast for much longer than he was doing; he praised the high ambition, the good will, the great self-denial undoubtedly implicit in such a statement; and then quite simply countered it by bringing out photographs, which were also on sale to the public, showing the artist on the fortieth day of a fast lying in bed almost dead from exhaustion. This perversion of the truth, familiar to the artist though it was, always unnerved him afresh and proved too much for him. What was a consequence of the premature ending of his fast was here presented as the cause of it! To fight against this lack of understanding, against a whole world of non-understanding, was impossible. Time and again in good faith he stood by the bars listening to the impresario, but as soon as the photographs appeared he always let go and sank with a groan back onto his straw, and the reassured public could once more come close and gaze at him.
http://www.has.vcu.edu/eng/webtext/hills/hills.htm
(Some) kinds of cohesion
Lexical chain
Activity 1
Why study literature from a linguistic perspective?
   
What benefits are there from an empirical study of literature?
  
 What potential disadvantages are there?
http://blog.joerenken.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/A-Hunger-Artist.jpg
Lexical Cohesion
Anaphoric reference
Cataphoric reference
 Exophoric reference
Substitution
is a sequence of related words in the text
is a word in a text refers to another later in the text
is a word in a text refers back to other ideas in the text for its meaning
points to something outside the language of the text, which is understood in the context
is the substitution of one part of a sentence structure with a similar type part to create a new sentence
Dialogue & Discourse
Review
Review
Cohesion
The grammatical and lexical features that help create a coherent text rather than a group of words
I rode my motorbike in the rain.
Subject
Predicator
Complement
Adjunct
It’s Suntory time
What is happening in this scene?
Without understanding the words of the director, what is the pragmatic meaning of his utterances/discourse activity?
What is wrong with the translation?
Activity 2
Lexical choices
Syntactic structures
Contextual issues
Creating meaning
Loss & Gain
"To tell the truth, Mr. Frog—"
"Please," Frog said, raising one finger again. "Call me 'Frog.'"
"To tell you the truth, Frog," Katagiri said…(Murakami, 2002: 93-94)
Example
Think about a language you are familiar with other than English and make a list of similarities and differences between the two languages.

In translating works of literature from one language to another, what difficulties do you think there are?

What strategies can translators use to address these difficulties?

What does the translation of literature tell us about the text being translated, the context the text was written in, and the context of the target text?
Activity 1
Style in Translation
From Stylistics and Translation (pgs. 9-10, see reading)
Jean Boase-Beier
(i) Translation is communication and an act of communication goes beyond what a text actually says to involve inferences made by the reader and the details of the text that encourage and allow such inferences;

(ii) Texts have effects on their reader and it is part of the translator’s task to gauge (and recreate if appropriate) what gives rise to these effects;

(iii) Readers of the source text and the target text have different cognitive contexts and the style of both texts reflects this difference;

(iv) The difference between literary and non-literary texts, crucial for the translator, is essentially one of style: the style of a non-literary text generally contains fewer or more controlled ambiguities, gaps and possibilities for the reader’s engagement;

(v) The style of literary texts, on the other hand, encourages creative and interactive reading on the part of the translator, and this is the type of reading the translation will also aim to make possible;

(vi) Stylistics presents us with a toolkit for describing texts and their interactions, but the question of its effects on practice is not straightforward.
Relevant issues
Describing Grammar
Structures
Sentence
Clause
Phrase
Word
Morpheme
Subject
Predicator
Complement
Adjunct
Sentences
In the middle of the night, the phone rang.
Subject
Predicator
Adjunct
Conversation Analysis
Turn-taking
Sequence
Identifying/repairing problems
Adjacency
Employing gaze/movement
Read Simpson pgs 59-66
Read Hirst and Morris
Read Crystal
What is Stylistics?
The use of linguistic tools to study literature.
Theory based
Empirical
Systematic
From Introduction to Narrative(pg. 8)
by Paul Hazel
1: Narrative is the primary means of comprehension and expression for our experience of events changing over time.

2: Narrative time is subjective, not objective; elastic, not metronomic.

3: Event selection and event sequencing are two crucial functional elements of narrative construction, and they are reciprocally related to the subjective experience of time described in the narrative.

4: A narrative is re-presentation of reality from a particular perspective: reality reconfigured to express meaning.

5: Oral narratives always have structure. The prototypical six-part structure as described by Labov and Waletzky includes Abstract, Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution, and Coda.

6: In practice this structure is subject to reconfiguration as meaning is socially situated.

7: Narrative is implicated in the efficient organization and encoding of memory.

8: Narrative is implicated in planning and problem-solving abilities.

9: Following from the two points above, we can locate narrative at the heart of the learning process.
Key Point
Narrative helps us describe and shape our social world.
Key concepts
Reliability
Validity
Replicability
The study of speech and the physical and physiological properties of sounds, e.g. explaining the difference between the sound represented by the letter ‘l’ in the word ‘leap’ and in the word ‘milk’.


The systems of sounds which languages make use of, e.g. the fact that the two sounds represented by ‘l’ in ‘leap’ and ‘milk’ count as instances of the same sound within the system (in most dialects) of English. A unit in the phonology of a language is known as a ‘phoneme’.


The minimal meaningful units in a language, e.g. the word ‘milk’ has one morpheme, the word ‘milkman’ has two morphemes.


How morphemes are grouped into larger structures and the description of the sentence structure. The study of grammar would fall into this field.


The study of meaning in language, particularly the individual meanings of words.


How particular meanings are worked out based on the interaction between linguistic meanings and context, e.g. how a hearer would infer the meaning of utterances like, ‘That’s the most fun I’ve ever had,’ or ‘It’s hot in here’.
The empirical study of interaction (verbal and non-verbal) in everyday interaction.
Not everyday conversation
Interaction is not mutually constructed
Conversation is one person's conjecture
Her characters aren't believable.
Case in point
Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical features that help create a coherent text rather than a group of words

Substitution, Lexical chains, Reference
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Semantics
Pragmatics
Looking for patterns and themes in a text based on theory
Theory
Theories guide analysis by providing epistimological and heuristic roadmaps for analysis.
Analysis in 3 steps
Each main finding:
How they answer the Research Question?
How they relate to expectations, results of previous studies, theoretical thinking in Literature Review?
What are plausible explanations?
What's the question?
What do I want to know?
What theory will guide me?
Social
world
Context
Literature
Time
Key Concept
Texts travel across time and contexts and are constantly interpreted and re-interpreted
Vladimir Propp
"I agree that a film should have a beginning, a middle and an end but not necessarily in that order". -Jean-Luc Godard
Morphology of the Folktale (1928)
150 Russian Fairytales
31 Narrative Functions
7 Characters
Little Red Riding Hood

One of the members of a family absents himself/herself from home.
An interdiction [prohibition] is addressed to the hero.
The interdiction is violated.
The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance.
The villain receives information about the victim.
The villain attempts to deceive the victim in order to take possession of the victim or their belongings.
The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps the villain.
The villain causes harm or injury to a member of the family.
Adapted from http://www.selectedworks.co.uk/structuralism.html
Task
Think of two famous fairytales.
How are the characters/storylines similar or dissimilar?
Do you agree with Propp's claim about narrative structures? Why or why not?
Structuralism
There is an over-arching system of language that all human draw on when employing it.
Systems are not limited to language, but can apply other things like narrative.
Structuralists are interested in underlying patterns to illustrate systematic ways of thinking and speaking
Literature, linguistics, and the social world
(see Moodle)
Levels of analysis
The study of speech and the physical and physiological properties of sounds, e.g. explaining the difference between the sound represented by the letter ‘l’ in the word ‘leap’ and in the word ‘milk’.


The systems of sounds which languages make use of, e.g. the fact that the two sounds represented by ‘l’ in ‘leap’ and ‘milk’ count as instances of the same sound within the system (in most dialects) of English. A unit in the phonology of a language is known as a ‘phoneme’.


The minimal meaningful units in a language, e.g. the word ‘milk’ has one morpheme, the word ‘milkman’ has two morphemes.


How morphemes are grouped into larger structures and the description of the sentence structure. The study of grammar would fall into this field.


The study of meaning in language, particularly the individual meanings of words.


How particular meanings are worked out based on the interaction between linguistic meanings and context, e.g. how a hearer would infer the meaning of utterances like, ‘That’s the most fun I’ve ever had,’ or ‘It’s hot in here’.
Phonetics
Phonology
Morphology
Syntax
Semantics
Pragmatics
For Next Week
Find a poem and identify one or two lexical fields from the poem. What insight does the identification of the fields give to understanding the poem's effect on readers?
LINDA (hearing Willy outside the bedroom, calls with some
trepidation): Willy!
WILLY:It’s all right. I came back.
LINDA: Why? What happened? (Slight pause.) Did something
happen, Willy?
WILLY: No, nothing happened.
LINDA: You didn’t smash the car, did you?
WILLY (with casual irritation): I said nothing happened. Didn’t
you hear me?
LINDA: Don’t you feel well?
WILLY: I’m tired to the death. (The flute has faded away. He sits
on the bed beside her, a little numb.) I couldn’t make it. I just
couldn’t make it, Linda.
LINDA (very carefully, delicately): Where were you all day? You
look terrible.
WILLY: I got as far as a little above Yonkers. I stopped for a cup
of coffee. Maybe it was the coffee.
LINDA: What?
WILLY (after a pause): I suddenly couldn’t drive any more. The
car kept going off onto the shoulder, y’know?
LINDA (helpfully): Oh. Maybe it was the steering again. I don’t
think Angelo knows the Studebaker.
WILLY: No, it’s me, it’s me. Suddenly I realize I’m goin’ sixty
miles an hour and I don’t remember the last five minutes. I’m
— I can’t seem to — keep my mind to it.
LINDA: Maybe it’s your glasses. You never went for your new
glasses.
Death of a Salesmen
Task
What information is passed to the reader in the dialogue?
What is the viewer/reader meant to understand about the couple/relationship in this dialogue?
For Next Week
Find a dialogue from a play or a story. Think about what information is being conveyed to the reader through the conversation. What is being highlighted? How does it help the narrative of the story move forward?
from Short (1989: 149)
Addressee 1
Addressee 1
Addressee 2
Addressee 2
(character A)
(character B)
(playwright)
(audience)
Message
Message
Dialogue
Things to Consider
Physical Context
Personal Context
Cognitive Context
Physical Context
Personal Context
Cognitive Context
What information is presented in this dialogue?
What do we learn about the characters from the dialogue?
How does the dialogue set the scene of the movie?
Task 1
Read the extract of 'The Sisters"
What role does the narrative description of the conversation and participants add to the dialogue?
What does it show about the contexts (physical, personal, cognitive)?
How does it direct the 'gaze of the reader?
Task
Task
What are different 'levels' at which you can do analysis in language?
How does the scope of research change depending on the level of analysis?
Phonemes
Morphemes
Words
Sentences
Narrative
sections/moves
Utterances
Scenes
Dialogue
Things we can analyse
Books
Task
Choose a text and think of three things you might be able to analyse in the text
Task
Rewrite the first section of 'On the Road' in the third person. How does the narrative change when you change the point of view?
Task
What are different points of view that a writer can take in a text? What do the different points of view add or take away from a given narrative?
Task
What locative expressions are present in this extract?
How do they affect the 'view' of the audience?
Change some of the expressions and see how it affects the point of view of the author?
Task
What perspectives are taken in each scene? How is internal thought portrayed?
How do you know?
How does the point of view change in the film?
How might this be represented in words?
I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up. I had just gotten over a serious illness that I won’t bother to talk about, except that it had something to do with the miserably weary split-up and my feeling that everything was dead. With the coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life you could call my life on the road. Before that I’d often dreamed of going West to see the country, always vaguely planning and never taking off. Dean is the perfect guy for the road because he actually was born on the road, when his parents were passing through Salt Lake City in 1926, in a jalopy, on their way to Los Angeles. First reports of him came to me through Chad King, who’d shown me a few letters from him written in a New Mexico reform school. I was tremendously interested in the letters because they so naively and sweetly asked Chad to teach him all about Nietzsche and all the wonderful intellectual things that Chad knew. At one point Carlo and I talked about the letters and wondered if we would ever meet the strange Dean Moriarty. This is all far back, when Dean was not the way he is today, when he was a young jailkid shrouded in mystery. Then news came that Dean was out of reform school and was coming to New York for the first time; also there was talk that he had just married a girl called Marylou.
Task
Translate a poem from English into English. You must rewrite any poem with the same meaning, but with different words.
Review for coursework
Hills like White Elephants
Review
Vladimir Propp's 31 Functions

I. Member of family absents self from home:
II. Interdiction announced:
III. Interdiction violated:
IV. Villain tries to meet:
V. Villain receives information:
VI. Villain attempts trickery:
VII. Victim deceived:
VIII. Villain harms family: A
VIIIa. Member of family lacks or desires: a
IX. Hero approached about lack: B
X. Seeker decides on counteraction: C
XI. Hero leaves home:
XII. Hero tested: prepares for magical agent: D
XIII. Hero responds to test of donor: E
XIV. Hero gets magical agent: F
XV. Hero transferred to object of search: G
XVI. Hero and villain in direct combat: H
XVII. Hero branded: J
XVIII. Villain defeated: I
XIX. Initial lack liquidated: K
XX. Hero returns:
XXI. Hero pursued: Pr
XXII. Rescue of hero from pursuit: Rs
XXIII. Unrecognized, hero arrives home or other country: oXXIV. False hero: L
XXV. Difficult task: M
XXVI. Task resolved: N
XXVII. Hero recognized: Q
XXVIII. False hero exposed: Ex
XXIX. Hero given new appearance: T
XXX. villain punished: U
XXXI. Hero marries and ascends throne: W

The Seven Character Types of Vladimir Propp

The villain—struggles against the hero
The donor—prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object
The (magical) helper—helps the hero in the quest
The princess and her father—gives the task to the hero, identifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the father can not be clearly distinguished
The dispatcher—character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off.
The hero or victim/seeker hero—reacts to the donor, weds the princess
False hero—takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess.
HANDOUT EXRACT
On the Road
In the 3rd person?
Watch the first 4 scenes here
Annie Hall
Power relations are discursive
Discourse constitutes society and culture
Discourse does ideological work
Discourse is historical
The link between text and society is mediated
Discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory
Discourse is a form of social action.
What is Stylistics?
What kinds of analysis can we do with stylistic tools?
Task
Full transcript