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Deep Carbon Export from a Southern Ocean Iron-Fertilized Diatom Bloom

Group A05 Project-Biological Principles 1510
by

Erin Hasty

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of Deep Carbon Export from a Southern Ocean Iron-Fertilized Diatom Bloom

Carbon Sequestering Experimental Design Diatom blooms were replicated in an eddy
in the Southern Ocean

They were induced by
iron fertilization

Researches wanted to find how CO2 sinks in the ocean

Results were compared
to locations outside of
the testing area Conclusion Experiment performed to see effect of iron fertilized diatoms on deep carbon export
Masses of dead diatoms bring trapped carbon to the ocean floors
The tested eddy showed to have high amounts of carbon sequestion
These results show that this process is a mechanism to store carbon in sediments on the sea floor for long periods of time Smetacek, V., Herndl, G., Sauter, E., Schmidt, M., Schwarz, J., Terbruggen, A., et al. (2012). Deep carbon export from a Southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom. Nature, 487(7407), 313-319. Deep Carbon Export from a Southern
Ocean Iron-Fertilized Diatom Bloom Found in almost every aquatic habitat Unicellular or chain-forming eukaryotes Science Photo Library Cell Structure Phytoplankton use CO2 and other chemicals to construct plant tissue
Most of this CO2 is recycled near the surface of the ocean
Approximately 30% of the CO2 sinks to deeper waters
Only about 0.1% reaches the seafloor to be buried in the sediments
Upwelling “Biological Pump” Trace gas in the atmosphere
Much less abundant than nitrogen or oxygen
Plays a significant role in sustaining life on Earth
Greenhouse gas – traps heat in the atmosphere Carbon Dioxide CO2 Transport Data http://carboncycle.aos.wisc.edu/uploads/images/takahashi/Tak_co2flux_1200.jpg http://pmel.noaa.gov/co2/files/pmel-research.003.jpg Photo. Marchetti Lab. 7 Feb. 2013. Web. <http://marchettilab.web.unc.edu/files/2011/07/DiatomBloom-e1329626644810.jpg> Experimental Background Why the researchers took this approach Why the southern ocean?
Why is iron used in this experiment? What are diatomic blooms? Diatomic Blooms Diatoms aggregate in large masses

After time, these blooms die and sink to the seafloor The Southern Ocean Located in the Antarctic Iron Nutrition Iron helps diatoms carry out other functions too

Iron-rich environments show greater plankton growth University of Portsmouth (2009, January 29). Iron Fertilization To Capture Carbon Dioxide Dealt A Blow: Plankton Stores Much Less Carbon Dioxide Than Estimated. ScienceDaily. Retrieved Feb. 7, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2009/01/090128183744.htm Cold-nutrient Rich Waters Also a place where upwellings occur frequently Stoermer, E. F. and J. P. Smol, Eds. (1999). The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

The Southern Ocean. CIA. The World Factbook. 15 Nov. 2012. Photo. Web. 11 Feb 2013. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/oo.html> What are they trying to find? Can diatomic blooms cause carbon to be sequestered for large timescales? What mechanisms cause carbon to be sequestered? Lee, R. E. (1999). Phycology (3rd ed.). Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press.
Use silicon to construct cell wall (Si) Diatoms & Ecology Main component of open-water marine flora
Primary Producers
Important for Food Chain
Carbon Cycle Freeman 4th Diatoms and the Carbon Cycle Freeman 4th Fig 54.2 What are diatoms? Why is their structure important? What are some of the ways diatoms are important to their ecosystems? Smetacek, Victor. Klass, Christime. "Deep carbon exportom a southern Ocean iron-fertilized diatom bloom". Nature. (2012): 313-318. Print. Freeman 4th Fig 29.5 Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere increasing rapidly due to humans burning fossil fuels

CO2 molecules trap heat, contributing to global warming

Carbon Cycle: carbon atoms move to organisms in the soil and ocean and then back again to the atmosphere

Research using iron fertilized diatom blooms involves the possibility of storing CO2 in terrestrial and marine environments to decrease amount in atmosphere
Can hold carbon for timescales of centuries Used for products involved in water filtration, bulk for paint and cosmetics, toothpaste, flea control, and more Cell walls settle into massive accumulations that are mined and sold commercially (diatomaceous earth) Two parts to cell wall, similar to a box and lid or petri dish CO2 trapped after death dominate plankton of cold water habitats Protists Freeman, S., & Hamilton, H. (2005). Biological science (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall. Freeman 4th Fig 29.29 Freeman 4th Freeman 4th Freeman 4th guardian.co.uk Smetacek, Victor, Christine Klaas, et al. "Deep Carbon Export from a Southern Ocean Iron-fertilized Diatom Bloom." Nature 487 (2012): 313-19 Tying it back to Biology- 1510 Diatoms are a major part of marine ecology
Photosynthetic phytoplankton provide around 1/3 of the world's oxygen supply
They are also a large source of nutrition for other marine life Stored in three places:
-Atmosphere
-Oceans
-Land Biosphere (material on land) Gschmeissner, Steve. Diatom Assortment, SEMS. 11 Feb. 2013. Photo. Web.<http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/3-diatom-assortment-sems-steve-gschmeissner.jpg> http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/diatom-assortment-sems-steve-gschmeissner.jpg http://www.temple-of-flora.com/gallery_pages/diatom4.htm http://www.thebearismybrother.com/medicinefortheearth.htm Prentice, I. Colin et al. "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." In Climate Change: The Scientific Basis—Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , eds. John T. Houghton et. al., Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, (2001):183–237.

Read more: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Bi-Ca/Carbon-Dioxide-in-the-Ocean-and-Atmosphere.html#ixzz2KjCUoyBa Prentice, I. Colin et al. "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide." In Climate Change: The Scientific Basis—Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , eds. John T. Houghton et. al., Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, (2001):183–237.

Read more: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Bi-Ca/Carbon-Dioxide-in-the-Ocean-and-Atmosphere.html#ixzz2KjCUoyBa Group A5 Lina Mills
Alex Costa
Erin Hasty
Daniel Nielsen
Vanessa Prema
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