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HISTORY OF INTERNET
Transcript of HISTORY OF INTERNET
WHAT IS INTERNET?
It is a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.
IN THE BEGINNING........
ARPA appoints J. Licklider and L. Roberts to head its computer research program in 1962.
Focus on computer communication for military purposes
Problem: Data traffic is bursty!.
FATHERS OF INTERNET
At DARPA, Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn are working on an architecture to create a “network of networks” - internetting!
ARPANET – Each node able to only talk to the other node on the other end of wire
First medium access control – ALOHANet by Norman Abramson
1973-75: Bob Metcalfe's dissertation leads to the Ethernet protocol
Medium access control protocol for wired networks based on Abramson's ALOHA.
Dissertation initially rejected by Harvard for not being analytical enough, but won acceptance when a few more equations were added!
WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
Tim Berners-Lee marries hypertext to the Internet, and invents the WWW (1991)
HTTP protocol, web browser, web server, web page
Data traffic is bursty – intervals of activity followed by periods of inactivity. E.g. Think of a web browsing session.
Circuit switched networks would be inefficient.
Leonard Kleinrock uses queuing theory, proposes packet switched networks in 1961.
More bandwidth efficient.
Robust – not reliant on single route.
Lawrence Roberts of ARPA publishes plan for the first computer network system – the ARPANET in 1961.
Packet switches were needed. Called Interface Message Processors (IMP), the contract was awarded to BBN
Oct 1969: IMPs installed in UCLA, Stanford, UCSB and Utah.
Telecommunication networks are ~100 years old.
Circuit-switched, connection oriented.
Intelligent core, dumb edge terminals.
IN THE BEGINNING.......
The history of the Internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. The public was first introduced to the concepts that would lead to the Internet when a message was sent over the ARPANet from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), after the second piece of network equipment was installed at Stanford Research Institute (SRI).
Russians launched sputnik in 1957.
Eisenhower saw the need for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
ARPA becomes a “technological think-tank for American defence”.
Several years later, ARPA starts looking into computer communication and networking.
1962: ARPA appoints J. Licklider and L. Roberts to head its computer research program.
Interface Message Processor
Internet Growth Chart
“Internet History”, Gregory Gromov, http://www.netvalley.com/cgi-bin/intval/net_history.pl?chapter=1
A Brief History of the Internet, Walt Howe, http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html
History of the Internet, Internet for Historians, Richard T. Griffiths, http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/ivh/frame_theorie.html
Hobbes' Internet Timeline, Robert Hobbes Zakon, http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/
CPSC 641 Lecture Slides - – Introduction, Networking Terminology and Intenet Evolution, Carey Williamson, http://pages.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/~carey/CPSC641/
CPSC 441 tutorial slides, Emir Halepovic
"The Information Systems" by Stephen Doyle.