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Weather Merit Badge

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Steve Olson

on 8 August 2013

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Transcript of Weather Merit Badge

Is there to be a Storm-a-Brewin'?
http://urbansurvivalpr.blogspot.com/2010/06/2013-super-solar-storm-could-send-us.html
.
http://meritbadge.org/wiki/index.php/Weather
• The specific site for the Weather merit badge worksheet is:
http://meritbadge.org/wiki/index.php/Merit_Badges
• The page for merit badges in general can be found here:
http://meritbadge.org/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page
including lots of useful web links, can be found here:
• A handy site for rank advancement, award and merit badge requirements,
Resources
• Weather, Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series (2006),
published by the Boy Scouts Of America. ISBN: 978-0-8395-
3274-3
• Glossary of Meteorology, 2nd Edition (2000), published by the
American Meteorological Society. ISBN: 1-878220-34-9
References
• Must be dependable, capable, and
responsible to perform this job well
• Forecasters often work nights,
weekends, and holidays
• Forecasters make decisions that affect
lives and property
Required Responsibilities
• Meteorology is a specialized branch of
physics, so a strong foundation in math
and science is important.
• Most jobs positions require a degree in
Meteorology, Atmospheric Science or a
related field
Training and Education
• Professor or researcher at a university
or other institution
• Military meteorologist
• Private weather firm forecaster
• NWS forecaster
• TV/Radio weathercaster
Career Opportunities
career opportunity that interests you.
Discuss with and explain to your
counselor what training and
education are required for such a
position, and the responsibilities
required of such a position.
• Find out about a weather-related
Requirement 10
• Once you have prepared the outline, get it approved
by your Weather merit badge counselor.
EPA article on acid rain: http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/what/index.html
USGS article on acid rain: http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html
Wikipedia entry on acid rain: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain
• Here are some handy links:
• Try googling “acid rain”
• Some required information can be found in the
section covering Requirement 7.
Resources for Requirement 9b
• Once you have prepared the outline, get
it approved by your Weather merit
badge counselor.
• All needed information can be found in
the section covering Requirement 2
Resources for Requirement 9a
• Define acid rain. Identify which
human activities pollute the
atmosphere and the effect such
pollution can have on people.
Requirement 7
The Water Cycle Illustrated
~Evaporation
~Transpiration
~Sublimation
~Condensation
~Transportation
~Precipitation
~Surface/
Snowmelt Runoff
~Infiltration into groundwater
~Groundwater Flow
~Plant Uptake
The Water Cycle Illustrated
• Draw a diagram of the water cycle
and label its major processes.

• Explain the water cycle to your counselor.
Requirement 6
Hail Formation Illustrated
Rain Formation Illustrated
Sea/Land Breezes Illustrated
atmosphere and gravity, also known as atmospheric pressure.
There you will find a list of NWS offices. Click on
an office near you and you will see their
homepage. Contact information can be found at
the bottom of that page.
http://www.weather.gov/organization.php
• Go to this link:
homes and dangerous weather in your community.
• Your best bet for finding out how warnings reach
b. Visit a National Weather Service office or talk with a local
radio or television weathercaster, private meteorologist,
local agricultural extension service officer, or university
meteorology instructor. Find out what type of weather is
most dangerous or damaging to your community.
Determine how severe weather and flood warnings reach
the homes in your community.
• Do either this requirement OR the one listed in Part a:
Requirement 8 Part b
• If you need more weather observations, go to this site:

http://weather.gov
http://meritbadge.org/wiki/images/a/a0/Weather.pdf
• An observation form can be found in “A Concise Study Guide for
the Weather Merit Badge” which can be found here:
• Resources for this requirement can be found at this site:

http://meritbadge.org/wiki/index.php/Weather
Weather Observations
http://www.ehow.com/how_2079001_make-simple-hygrometer.html
Hygrometer:

http://www.ehow.com/how_2086258_make-simple-rain-gauge.html
Rain gage:

http://www.ehow.com/how_2225384_make-an-anemometer.html
Anemometer:

http://www.ehow.com/how_2154709_make-wind-vane.html
Wind vane:

• Here are some links to pages describing
how to make weather instruments:
Making Weather Instruments
anemometer, rain gauge, hygrometer. Keep a daily weather
log for one week using information from this instrument as
well as from other sources such as local radio and
television stations, NOAA Weather Radio, and Internet
sources (with your parent's permission). Record the
following information at the same time every day: wind
direction and speed, temperature, precipitation, and types
of clouds. Be sure to make a note of any morning dew or
frost. In the log, also list the weather forecasts from radio or
television at the same time each day and show how the
weather really turned out.
a. Make one of the following instruments: wind vane,
• Do either this requirement OR the one following in Part b:
Requirement 8 Part a
Warm Front - 3D views
Warm Front - Planer and Cross Sectional Views
Mesocyclone
46
Cold Front - 3D view
Cold Front - Planer and Cross Sectional Views
• Air warms and dries out as it sinks
• High pressure is associated with sinking air
• Clouds and precipitation form in areas
of rising air
• Low pressure is associated with rising air
High and Low Pressure Pt. 2
the weight of the air above a point
on the earth or in the air. The
column of air above a square inch
of the earth’s surface weighs
about 15 pounds.
• Atmospheric pressure is simply
Atmospheric Pressure
Weather Map
Typical Clouds for Each Front
Typical Clouds of a Cold Front over taking a Warm Front
Wall Cloud
36
Vertical
Development:
Clouds and Weather
Clouds and Weather
~Cumulus in Latin
means ‘heaped’
Clouds and Weather
~Stratus from Latin,
literally means ‘strewn’
~Nimbus in Latin is a
‘rain cloud‘
• Nimbostratus clouds are associated with steady precipitation
Cloud Types Illustrated
and upper levels of the atmosphere.
Relate these to specific types of
weather.
• Identify clouds in the low, middle,
Requirement 5
• Issued when the risk of a hazardous weather
or warning event has increased
significantly, but its occurrence, location,
and/or timing is still uncertain.
Weather Watches
• Other safety rules are similar to those
for floods
• If trapped, get to shelter on higher
ground.
• Leave the danger area
Hurricane Safety Rules
• If trapped outside, find a low place that
is not flooded, lie face down and cover
your head
• Main danger is from flying debris, so
seek shelter in a basement or a
centrally located bathroom
Tornado Safety Rules
• Do not drive into water, especially
running water
• Do not camp in gullies or near stream beds
• Get to higher ground!
Flood Safety Rules

Floods generally occur on larger rivers
and cover a wider area. Floods can
take days to rise, crest, and subside.

Flash Floods generally occur due to intense rainfall over a small area or from a dam break, and the waters rise and fall rapidly.
Flash Floods and Floods
• Stay away from open areas and tall objects such as trees or poles
• Become the smallest target you can
• Seek shelter in a house or car
Thunderstorm Safety Rules
cumulonimbus clouds
with lightning and
thunder. They may
contain heavy rain,
strong winds, and
large hail.
• These are large
Thunderstorms
• These can include snow/ice storms,
blizzards, and extreme cold combined
with strong winds.
Winter Storms
• Name five dangerous weather-related
conditions.

• Give the safety rules for each when
outdoors and explain the difference between a severe weather watch and a warning.

• What are the safety rules within your
family?
Requirement 2
Weather’s Effects on Construction
• Rain - Certain jobs require
dry weather / Schedule Delays
• Wind - Can damage
unfinished structures
• Temperatures – Can affect
ability to do certain tasks
• Severe weather can destroy many structures
Weather’s Effects on Mariners
• Storms - can disorient navigation
• Fog - sailors can get disoriented
• Freezing Spray - can capsize a boat
• Wind & Waves are the most important factors
Fuel Consumption is the name of the "game"
The Earth's axis is tilted from perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic by 23.45°
Why 4 Seasons?
8
Definition of Meteorology
• “Logos”, also Greek, which in this
context means “knowledge or
discussion”.
• From ”meteoron”, which is Greek for
“things in the air”,
• Meteorology is the study of the
atmosphere and its weather.
Definition of Meteorology
3
Weather Merit Badge
1. Name
2. Years of Scouting
(including Cub
Scouts)

5. Tell us about you:
a. Something AMAZING!
b. Something that you are improving yourself on.
6. Why did you choose to earn this Badge today?
7. Are you going to earn it today and did you do the
prerequisites? Do you have a signed 'weather' merit badge card from your scoutmaster?
8. Tell us something you know about weather
Supplemental Slides by: Steve Olson
scouter.t733@gmail.com
(651) 214-6776 text&cell
Jay R. Stockton /Senior Forecaster, National Weather Service, WFO Medford Oregon
By
A Study Guide
Weather Merit Badge
• b. Read several articles about acid rain and give a
prepared talk of at least five minutes to a group
(such as your troop, patrol, or a Cub Scout pack)
about the articles. Before your talk, share your
outline with your counselor for approval.
• Do either this requirement OR the one listed in
Part a:
Requirement 9 Part b
• a. Give a talk of at least five minutes to a group
(such as your unit or a Cub Scout pack)
explaining the outdoor safety rules in the event of
lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes. Before
your talk, share your outline with your counselor
for approval.
• Do either this requirement OR the one following
in Part b:
Requirement 9: part a
• Climate Change raises sea level, threatening inundation of low-lying areas where many people live.
• The breakdown of the ozone layer allows more solar ultraviolet radiation,
leading to more skin cancer cases.
• Desertification of land destroys farmland
and leads to less food production
How People Are Affected
• So called Global Warming due to excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
• Breakdown of ozone layer due to
chlorofluorocarbons
• Desertification of land due to overgrazing, unsound
farm practices, or mining
Human Effects on Weather
The smoke and fumes from burning fossil fuels rise into the atmosphere and combine with the moisture in the air to form acid rain. The main chemicals in air pollution that create acid rain are sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.  Acid rain usually forms high in the clouds where sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water, oxygen, and oxidants. This forms a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. Rainwater, snow, fog, and other forms of precipitation containing those mild solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids fall to the earth as acid rain.
The coal-fired Gavin Power Plant in Cheshire, Ohio
91
• Main source of pollutants is from power plants burning high- sulfur content coal
• Sulfur particles react with water to form
a dilute solution of sulfuric acid
• Acid Rain is normal rained mixed with
pollutants containing sulfur particles
Acid Rain
Evaporation
Transpiration
Sublimation
Condensation
Transportation
Precipitation
Surface Runoff
Infiltration into Groundwater
Groundwater Flow
Plant Uptake
The Water Cycle Illustrated
How much water does an average person use each day?
• Total amount of water on earth does not change much.
Points to Remember
The Water Cycle:
• Eventually the hailstone gets too heavy to be held up
by the updraft and it falls to the ground.
• This can happen many times. The growing hailstone
acquires another layer of ice with each cycle.
• Sometimes updrafts form under downdrafts, and rain
is swept back up above the freezing level and
freezes, and then it falls again.
• Thunderstorms have updrafts and downdrafts,
usually rain falls in a downdraft
• Also associated with thunderstorms
Hail Formation
• This bolt of electricity is what we see as lightning. It
can be cloud-to-cloud, cloud-to-ground, cloud-to-air, and even
ground-to-cloud.
• When the charge separation gets strong enough, a
bolt of electricity jumps between an area of positive
charge and an area of negative charge.
• Associated with thunderstorms
Lightning
• When the droplets get so large that they
can no longer be suspended in the air,
they fall as rain.
• The cloud droplets combine to form
bigger droplets.
Rain Formation Part 3
atmosphere, it cools. Cooler air can’t
hold as much water vapor, and the
excess condenses and forms clouds.
• If the air is raised upward in the
certain amount of water vapor. When it
contains that amount of vapor, it is
saturated.
• Air at a given temperature can hold a
Rain Formation Part 2
Next,
• Rising air
• A water source, and
Two things are needed to form rain:
Rain Formation Part 1
• Cooler air from the ocean moves in to
replace the rising air (a sea breeze)
• Warm air rises over the land, creating
an area of lower pressure
• In the afternoon, the land area is hotter
than the water
• Land heats faster than water
Example: Sea Breezes
everywhere, moving air from high to low pressure. Wind,
which is defined as moving air, naturally results from this
process.
constantly trying to make the air pressure equal
• As mentioned in Requirement 3, the atmosphere is
What Causes Wind?
• Tell what causes wind, why it rains,
and how lightning and hail are
formed.
Requirement 4
Simple Bottle Barometer
Everyday Examples of Barometric Pressure
• College professor
• Agricultural Extension Service Officer
• Private meteorologist
• Television meteorologist
• National Weather Service meteorologist
Weather Experts Near You
• The atmosphere tries to even out areas of
high and low pressure, creating weather in
the process
• High pressure tends to develop towards the
poles while low pressure develops near the
equator
• This is due to uneven heating of the earth’s
surface by the sun
• Pressure varies horizontally as well as
vertically
High and Low Pressure Pt. 1
• Explain the difference between high and
low pressure systems in the atmosphere.
Tell which is related to good and to poor
weather. Draw cross sections of a cold
front and a warm front, showing the
location and movements of the cold and
warm air, the frontal slope, the locations
and types of clouds associated with each
type of front, and the location of
precipitation.
Requirement 3
Alto is derived from the Latin word altus, meaning ‘high’
Middle Clouds (6500’ to 20,000’ AGL)
Clouds and Weather
Clouds and Weather
Low Surface Clouds
Fog Ground
Fog less than 20 feet deep
Radiation
Forms over low-lying flat surfaces
Clear, calm, humid nights
Advection
Warm moist air moves over cooler surfaces
Up to 15 knots intensifies development of fog
Upslope
Moist stable air forced up a sloping land mass
Steam
Cold, dry air moves over warmer water
It’s up to YOU to
discuss this
with your family.
It just might save
Lives someday!
• Issued when a hazardous weather or
flooding event is occurring, about to
occur, or has a high probability of
occurring. PLAN for SURVIAL, NOW!
Weather Warnings
• Develops over
warm water and
breaks up over
cold water or land
Hurricanes
• Can be from 60 to
600 miles in
diameter
• Large hurricanes and/or sometimes referred to as cyclones with winds exceeding 74mph and up to
200 mph
• Find a heat source, if possible
• Avoid overexertion
• Stay dry!
• Find Shelter / Stay in car, if available
• Covered exposed body parts
• Seek protection from wind
Winter Storm Safety Rules
Thunderstorms
& Tornadoes!!
Can obscure terrain and make it difficult for the pilot to see for navigation
Can cause loss of control,
injure pilots, passengers,
and damage equipment
Can weigh down an aircraft and
increase drag
• Low Ceilings & Visibilities:
• Turbulence:
• Icing:
Weather’s Effects on Aviation
Limits Crop Yields
• Irregular Seasonal
Temperatures:
Blow down also can damage crops
Can damage crops
Too much or too little and good or bad timing
Can kill vegetation
• Frosts and Freezes:
• Strong Winds:
• Hail:
• Rain:
Weather’s Effects on Agriculture
• Weather:
Short term (seconds
to days) variations in the
atmosphere.
Weather and Climate
Requirement 1
Uncited images/tables/charts/etc. used in this publication were
obtained from government sources. If, for whatever reason,
there is any copyright claim, then they are used herein under the
"Fair Use" doctrine.
any circumstances. It may be freely distributed or re-distributed
(printed, or otherwise) for educational purposes only.
This publication is not for sale and may not be re-sold, under
Copyright notice: (c) 2010, Jay R. Stockton.
Disclaimer and Copyright
• Cooler air from land moves in to replace
the rising air (land breeze)
• Relatively warmer air rises over the water, creating an area of lower pressure.
• At night, the land becomes cooler than
the water
• Land cools faster than water
Example: Land Breezes
Isobars drawn on a weather map to show high and low air pressure areas
Scientific Description of Barometric Pressure
• Middle Clouds (6500-20000 ft.)
Altocumulus [al-toh-kyoo-myuh-luhs], Altostratus [al-toh-strat-uhs]
• Low Clouds (below 6500 feet)
Stratus [strat-uhs], Nimbostratus [nim-boh-strey-tuhs], and Stratocumulus [strat-oh-kyoo-myuh-luhs]
• Vertically developing clouds (0-50000 ft.)
Cumulonimbus [kyoo-myuh-loh-nim-buhs] and Cumulus [kyoo-myuh-luhs]
There are four general types of clouds:
Cloud Types
• Usually less than a few hundred yards wide, last a few minutes, and trace a path of 1
mile or less.
• Winds can be as high as 300
MPH
• Usually visible as a funnel
shaped cloud
• Violently rotating columns of
air descending from thunderstorm clouds and in contact with the earth
Tornadoes
~365,750,000,000,000,000,000 gallons
or ~366 quintillion gallons
A cubic mile of water equals
~1.1 trillion gallons
In the United States alone in 2005, used about 325,000,000,000 (325 billion) gallons per day of surface water and about 85 billion gallons per day of ground water (Non-saline). Equaling 410 billion gallons daily!
http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1344/
If all of Earth's water (oceans, seas, icecaps
and glaciers, lakes, rivers, ground water,
and water in the atmosphere was put into
a sphere, one big droplet, then the diameter of that water ball would be about 860 miles. This total volume of all water would be about 332.5 million cubic miles (mi3).
So then… we know how much water we use
daily, then how much water is there
on (and in) the Earth?
Water
Define Meteorology. Explain what
weather is and what climate is.
How does weather affects farmers,
sailors, aviators, and the outdoor
construction industry.
Tell why weather forecasts are important to each of these groups.
• Cumulonimbus clouds form showers and thunderstorms
• Other clouds generally are not associated with precipitation, but may produce rain or snow that evaporates
before it reaches the ground (virga).
Surface to 6500’ Above Ground Level (AGL)
Cirrus is Latin, for a curly lock of hair
High Clouds (Above 20,000’ AGL)
Typical Clouds of a Warm Front over taking a Cold Front
Barometric Pressure also known as atmospheric pressure is the same as Air Pressure. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere at a given point.

Air Pressure is the weight of the air pushing on Earth. It can change from place to place which causes air to move or circulate, flowing from areas of high pressure toward areas of low pressure.
At sea level the Barometric Pressure is about 15psi.
Air Pressure chances with the weather. In fact, its one of the most important factors in forecasting approaching weather and helps determine what the weather will be like.
Weather forecasters refer to high pressure and low pressure systems when discussing weather conditions. Pressure is recorded in many different units: atmospheres (atm), millibars (mb), pascals (Pa), inches of mercury (in), pounds per square inch (PSI), Isobars (IB), etc.
Even though we do not always feel pressure changes, our bodies are able to detect fast changes. For example, when flying in a plane and increasing height quickly, our ears may "pop". This is due to low atmospheric pressure.
Isobars are lines drawn on a map joining places of equal average atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level for a specified period of time. The distribution of isobars is closely related to the magnitude and direction of the wind field, and can be used to predict future weather patterns.
As we climb higher, there is less force pushing down upon us, which is why atmospheric pressure always DECREASES with height!
Based on a principle developed by Evangelista Torricelli in 1643, the Mercurial Barometer is an instrument used for measuring the change in atmospheric pressure. It uses a long glass tube, open at one end and closed at the other. Air pressure is measured by observing the height of the column of mercury in the tube. At sea level, air pressure will push on the mercury at the open end and support a column of mercury about 30 inches high. If you used water instead of mercury, you would need a glass tube over 30 feet in length.
Weather Instrument Project
As the air pressure outside the bottle decreases, the trapped air inside the bottle will push the water up the straw. As the air pressure outside the bottle increases, it will push the water farther down the straw.
Please Note: You'll need to keep your barometer's temperature constant, since temperature will also affect the water level.
Simple Bottle Barometer
Place the bottle barometer in an area where it won't be disturbed. If it is moved, then each time you’ll have to unscrew the lid just a bit and retighten the lid in order to reset the instrument’s proper vacuum. Remember, when the water level in the tubing is low, high pressure is going on (or "Highs" as they say in the weather reports). When the water level is above the water level and rising then a low pressure is in effect (or a "Low").
keep a daily weather log for one week using information from this instrument as well as from other sources such as local radio and television stations, NOAA eather Radio, and Internet sources (with your parent's permission). Record the following information at the same time every day: wind direction and speed, temperature, precipitation, and types of clouds
the water must evaporate into the air, transforming into invisible water
vapor.
-Evaporation
-Transpiration
-Sublimation
-Condensation
-Transportation
-Precipitation
-Surface/
Snowmelt Runoff
-Infiltration into groundwater
-Groundwater Flow
-Plant Uptake
Now it’s time to

draw your

diagram of the

water cycle and

label its major

processes
Solar Flares!
Game Over
Really what is the BIGGEST Super Storm?
• Climate:
The average course or condition of the weather at a given location, usually over a period of years.
Summer is warmer than winter (in each hemisphere) because the Sun's rays hit the Earth at a more direct angle during summer than during winter and also because the days are much longer than the nights during the summer. During the winter, the Sun's rays hit the Earth at an extreme angle, and the days are very short.
A wall cloud is an abrupt lowering of a rain-free cumulonimbus base into a low-hanging accessory cloud. A wall cloud is usually situated in the southwest portion of the storm. Strong winds start driving a rotation within the Wall Cloud which could develop into tornadoes or funnel clouds.
It is the force exerted by the weight of the…
So again… what is Barometric Pressure?
How much water is there?
Looks like a BIG water drop ~
HINT:
• Water is constantly being recycled from ocean to land and back again.
So... how many gallons is that?
Now you’ll have to
The average American uses ~176 gallons of water per day compared to 5 gallons of water the average African family uses each day. (www.water.org):
Meteorology, branch of science that deals with the atmosphere
of a planet, particularly that of the earth, the most important application of which is the analysis and prediction of weather. Individual studies within meteorology include:
How many types of lightning are there?
• As a thunderstorm develops, positive and negative charges form on the ground and in various parts of the cloud.
Why do Rainbows Appear?
1. Aeronomy [ai-ron-uh-mee]: The study of the physics, chemical and physical phenomena of the upper atmosphere;
2. Aerology [ai-rol-uh-jee]: The study of free air not adjacent to the earth's surface; observation of the atmosphere by means of balloons, airplanes, etc.
3. Applied Meteorology: The application of weather data for specific practical problems;
4. Dynamic Meteorology: The study of atmospheric motions (which also includes the meteorology of other planets and satellites in the solar system);
5. Physical Meteorology: Which focuses on the physical properties of the atmosphere.
• Stay away from water, metallic objects, or anything that uses or conducts electricity
Fujita Scale

1. Define meteorology. Explain what weather is and what climate is. Discuss how the weather affects farmers, sailors, aviators, and the outdoor construction industry. Tell why weather forecasts are important to each of these groups.
2. Name five dangerous weather-related conditions. Give the safety rules for each when outdoors and explain the difference between a severe weather watch and a warning. Discuss the safety rules with your family.
3. Explain the difference between high and low pressure systems in the atmo­sphere. Tell which is related to good and to poor weather. Draw cross sections of a cold front and a warm front, showing the location and movements of the cold and warm air, the frontal slope, the location and types of clouds associated with each type of front, and the location of precipitation.
4. Tell what causes wind, why it rains, and how lightning and hail are formed.
5. Identify and describe clouds in the low, middle, and upper levels of the atmosphere. Relate these to specific types of weather.
6. Draw a diagram of the water cycle and label its major processes. Explain the water cycle to your counselor.
7. Define acid rain. Identify which human activities pollute the atmosphere and the effects such pollution can have on people.
8. Do ONE of the following a or b:
a. Make one of the following instruments: wind vane, anemometer, rain gauge, hygrometer. Keep a daily weather log for one week using information from this instrument as well as from other sources such as local radio and television stations, NOAA Weather Radio, and Internet sources (with your parent's permission). Record the following information at the same time every day: wind direction and speed, temperature, precipitation, and types of clouds. Be sure to make a note of any morning dew or frost. In the log, also list the weather forecasts from radio or television at the same time each day and show how the weather really turned out.
b. Visit a National Weather Service office or talk with a local radio or television weathercaster, private meteorologist, local agricultural extension service officer, or university meteorology instructor. Find out what type of weather is most dangerous or damaging to your community. Determine how severe weather and flood warnings reach the homes in your community.
9. Do ONE of the following a or b:
a. Give a talk of at least five minutes to a group (such as your unit or a Cub Scout pack) explaining the outdoor safety rules in the event of lightning, flash floods, and tornadoes. Before your talk, share your outline with your counselor for approval.
b. Read several articles about acid rain and give a prepared talk of at least five minutes to a group (such as your unit or a Cub Scout pack) about the articles. Before your talk, share your outline with your counselor for approval.
10. Find out about a weather-related career opportunity that interests you. Discuss with and explain to your counselor what training and education are required for such a position, and the responsibilities required of such a position.
Weather Merit Badge Requirements
• High Clouds (above 20000 ft.)
Cirrus [sir-uhs], Cirrocumulus [sir-oh-kyoo-myuh-luhs], Cirrostratus [sir-oh-strat-uhs]
Low Clouds
High and Low Pressure
Finding a NWS Meteorologist
Barometric Pressure
3. Troop or Crew
Location

4. Rank
A small cyclone that arises near a thunderstorm and is sometimes associated with the occurrence of tornadoes.
[mez-uh-sahy-klohn]
Safety Lightning Stance
62,600 gallons
[mee-tee-uh-rol-uh-jee]
2011&2013
WATER TRIVIA FACTS
1.How much water does it take to process a quarter pound of hamburger?
Approximately one gallon.
2.How much water does it take to make four new car tires?
2,072 gallons
3.What is the total amount of water used to manufacture a new car, including new tires?
39,090 gallons per car
4.How much water must a person consume per day to maintain health?
2.5 quarts from all sources
5.How much water does a birch tree give off per day in evaporation?
70 gallons
6.How much water does an acre of corn give off per day in evaporation?
4,000 gallons
7.How many community public water systems are there in the United States?
56,000
8.How much water do these utilities process daily?
34 billion gallons
9.How much water does the average residence use during a year?
107,000 gallons
10.How much of the earth's surface is water?
80%
11.Of all the earth's water, how much is ocean or seas?
97%
12.How much of the world's water is frozen and therefore unusable?
2%
13.How much of the earth's water is suitable for drinking water?
1%
14.How much does one gallon of water weigh?
8.34 pounds
15.How many gallons of water would it take to cover one square mile with one foot of water?
219 million gallons
16.How much water is in one cubic foot?
7.48 gallons
17.How many gallons of water do you get per acre, when it rains one inch?
27,000 gallons per acre
18.How much of the human body is water?
66%
19.How much water does it take to process one chicken?
11.6 gallons
20.How much water does it take to process one can of fruit or vegetables?
9.3 gallons
21.How much water does it take to make one board foot of lumber?
5.4 gallons
22.How much water does it take to make one pound of plastic?
24 gallons
23.How much water does it take to make one pound of wool or cotton?
101 gallons
24.How much water does it take to refine one barrel of crude oil?
1,851 gallons
25.How much does it take to produce one ton of steel?
62,600 gallons
Water Trivia
But only 1% is non-saline useable drinkable =
~3,657,500,000,000,000,000 gallons
or a droplet of water that measures now 8.6 miles in diameter.
WARNING!
Key for cloud abbreviations in the 3-D views:

Vertically developing clouds
Cb Cumulonimbus
Cu Cumulus

Low Clouds (below 6500feet)
St Stratus
Ns Nimbostratus
Sc Stratocumulus

Middle Clouds (6500-18000 feet)
Ac Altocumulus
As Altostratus

High Clouds (above 18000 feet) Ci Cirrus
Cs Cirrostratus
Cc Cirrocumulus
Key for cloud abbreviations in the 3-D views:

Vertically developing clouds
Cb Cumulonimbus
Cu Cumulus

Low Clouds (below 6500feet)
St Stratus
Ns Nimbostratus
Sc Stratocumulus

Middle Clouds (6500-18000 feet)
Ac Altocumulus
As Altostratus

High Clouds (above 18000 feet) Ci Cirrus
Cs Cirrostratus
Cc Cirrocumulus
Full transcript