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Cross Country Sports Project

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Kaeti Park

on 6 December 2014

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Transcript of Cross Country Sports Project

Cross Country Running
Kinesiology MoWe
3 December 2014
Kaeti Park

Motor Behavior
Exercise Physiology
1. Sport Psychology
2. Motor Behavior
3. Exercise Physiology
4. Biomechanics
5. Sports History

Sports History
Concept 1: Psychological Benefits of Running
Concept 2: Anxiety & Performance
Concept 3: Imagery
Works Cited
Concept 1: Motor Learning
Concept 2: Motor Control
Concept 3: Motor Development
Works Cited:
Concept 1: Principles of Training
Concept 2: Fitness Plan
Concept 3: Energy Groups Used in Distance Running
Works Cited
Concept 1: Stability
Concept 2: Linear Motion
Concept 3: Force of Running on the Body
Concept 1: Inventor/Roots
Concept 2: Professional XC
Concept 3: Recreational Distance/Trail Running
Works Cited:
Works Cited:
"defined by Vealey as 'the systematic scholarly study of the behavior, feelings, and thoughts of people engaged in sport, exercise and physical activity'" (Wuest, 2009, p. 357)
Reduced Stress
Sound Body, Sound Mind
better focus in school
think clearer
complete tasks
"runners high" to have positive thoughts and emotions, endorphins
self-satisfaction and motivation
Physical Effects of Anxiety
Sweaty Palms
Urge to urinate
Muscle tension
Fast HR
all of which occur prior to racing for many people
(Wuest, 2009, p. 373)
"Psych Talks"
Turn anxiety into focus in a race (example: adrenaline use as a power, or burn out)
Maximum performance levels
Role of a coach: "counseling role...help them overcome problems, adjust to situations, and deal with stresses in their lives" (Siedentop, 2009, p. 363)
"Use physical activity to release stress and anxiety" (Wuest, 2009, p. 373)
"Running creates positive stress which...equips us with the robust foundation we need to fight off desease, depression, and weakness"
(Running Metronome)

"How Running Reduces Anxiety and Prevents Stress". Retrieved from Running Metronome:

Siedentop, Daryl (2009). Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, & Sport. Mountainview, CA: Mayfield Publishing.

Wuest, Deborah A., & Bucher, Charles A. (2009). Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
In Cross Country Racing:
Coaches instruct runners to imagine the course the night before the race (from personal experience)
"versatile mental training technique...to enhance performance"(Wuest, 2009, p. 383)
Internal vs. External Imagery
Internal: Imagining running, through own eyes

External: Imagine as if a spectator watching you run

(Wuest, 2009, p. 382)
"Motor Behavior is concerned with the learning or acquisition of skills across the lifespan...motor learning, motor control, and motor development"
(Wuest, 2009, p. 185)
Practice and Experience
Outside criticism
Practicing Technique
Running Form is vital
Train different muscle groups
Drills, warmups, dynamic movements to train proper form
Simple skills first, then advanced ones
Learn from experience
(from personal experience)
Critique by a coach or teammate
Video instruction, of others or yourself
Form/Technique instruction
Running motor skills- natural
Everyone has a different style
(from personal experience)
Definition: "neurophysiological and behavioral processes affecting the control of skilled movements" (Wuest, 2009, p. 188)
In general, no outside factors:
runners that can have proper running form in perfect conditions
Runners that can run well no matter what the environment, conditions, etc. Interpret the factors and change according to them in order to run successfully
Creating Skills
Improving Existing Skills
For people who didn't have much prior experience with running:
Changing from fast-twitch muscles to slow twitch muscles (XC)
Running solo vs. racing in competition
Gaining endurance, flexibility, strength
Conscious connection to motor abilities (physical)
For people who ran prior to XC:
What type of running did they do?
Understanding previous limitations and pushing past them
Comfort with learning the skill & building upon it
Quicker skill-acquisition of distance running
Siedentop, Daryl (2009). Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness & Sport. Mountainview, CA: Mayfield Publishing

Wuest, Deborah A. & Bucher, Charles A. (2009). Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
"The study of the body's metabolic response to short-term and long-term physical activity"
(The Free Dictionary)
"Exercise Physiology". Retrieved from The Free Dictionary:

Siedentop, Daryl (2009). Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, & Sport. Mountainview, CA: Mayfield Publishing.

Wuest, Deborah A. & Bucher, Charles A. (2009). Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Wuehner, Paige (2014). "Target Heart Rate Training Zones". Retrieved from About Health:
body adapt to change
ex: "alternating the types of activities performed or by varying the muscle groups being trained" (Wuest, 2009, p. 268)
Ex: in XC, doing hill workouts, then core work, then strength training, then plyos, etc.
"use it or lose it"
(Wuest, 2009, p. 268)
deterioration of body when not maintained
in XC, it is necessary that one takes 1-2 weeks off between the racing season and off-season training
Target Training Zone:
Personal Records & Goals
Race Times show improvement
Optimal level of training
Zone for XC: maximum effort, high intensity
"working as hard as you can, as in... very high intensity interval training" like hill repeats (Waehner, 2014, About Health)
Heart Rate training, VO2 max
Performance-based training, running race pace in XC
"Working in this zone takes you out of your comfort zone and allows you to burn more calories while improving your VO2 Max and raise your anaerobic threshold" (Waehner, 2014, About Health)
Phosphagen System
"large amount of power...produced by the muscles...a high demand for ATP" (Karp, ND, Ideafit)
In XC: the initial drain of energy at the start line after the gun. Crucial in order to get a head start and not get caught in the back of the pack
Used up quickly
Aerobic System:
Use energy-with air
Distance/endurance athletes
Burn fat storage
VO2 max
In XC: slower pace, body can use oxygen and you can run longer
Sports Psychology
Psychological Benefits of Running: reduced stress, sound body means a sound mind.
Anxiety and Performance: physical and mental effects of anxiety. Stress can either strengthen or weaken a runner.
Imagery: Focus by imagining yourself running
"Biomechanics...focuses on the application of the scientific principles of mechanics to understand movements and actions of human bodies and sport implements" (Wuest, 2009, pg. 222)
Core Strength
Exercises to Help Stability
Maintaining Form
Benefits of Good Form
Maximum Transfer of Force
Quick turnover
In the air mostly
Roll, don't pound
Run with a fore-foot strike, in order to "have minimal impact on landing"(Harvard-Running Barefoot)
Different shoes mean different running form
Minimalist vs. Supported shoes
Negative Aspects
Knee & Hip injury
"The force exerted from running increases that load to anywhere between 5 to 12 times your weight, depending largely on running speed or form"(Klinkenberg, 20 March 2014)
Improper running form leads to injury
Having a strong core helps tremendously
Widened base of support helps
Targeting muscle groups such as hip flexers and knees
Russian twists
Back extensions
Upward row with dumbell
(Runner's World, nd.)
(Wuest, 2009, pg. 233)
move in a straight line
start to finish, no deviations
feet&arms move together in lines, not crossing
even when on a turn, maintain linear motion
run faster
less injury
more competitive
don't tire as easily
"forefoot or midfoot striking can help avoid and/or mitigate repetitive stress injuries, especially stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and runner's knee"(Harvard-Running Barefoot)
"10 Essential Strength Exercises for Runners" Retrieved from Runner's World:

Klinkenberg, Brendan. "Can Running Really Hurt Your Knees?" 20 March 2014. Retrieved from Men's Health:

"Running Barefoot, Forefoot Striking & Training Tips" Retrieved from Biomechanics of Foot Strikes
&Applications to Running Barefoot or in Minimal Footwear:

Wuest, Deborah A. & Bucher, Charles A. (2009). Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

(Wuest, 2009, pg. 234)
Motor Learning: Teaching your body and muscles to run
Motor Control: Having control over your body while running
Motor Development: Developing skills in order to run well
Good Points on Running
Principles of Training: different phases and types
Fitness Plan: understand where you were, what you are, and where you are going
Energy Groups Used: phosphagen & aerobic
Stability: strength, necessary for running form
Linear Motion: physics of running in a straight line
Forces of Running on the Body: stress and force a body goes through while running
XC Racing
"[Sport history] chronicles the past but also interprets the past, relates the past to the present, and provides guidelines to what might be expected or what courses might be taken in the future" (Siedentop, 2009, pg. 373)
Inventor/Roots: back to days in Athens where running competitions were popular. Cross country specifically began in England as "Hare and Hounds" game
Professional XC: championships, related to marathons, triathlons
Recreational Distance/Trail Running: leisure and popular pastime of many to maintain health
Ancient Greece
running games helped train soldiers to be fit
part of the Olympia
"long-distance run which ranged from 7 to 24 stades (1,344 m. to 4,608 m.)"
thin shoes and dirt courses
test of endurance
(Perseus Project Database)
"Ancient Olympic Events" Retrieved from Perseus Project Database, ND. :

"Archive of Past Events" Retrieved from IAAF World Cross Country Championships:

Ling, Bill. "History of Cross Country" Retrieved from Drexel University Pages, ND. :

Siedentop, Daryl (2009). Introduction to Physical Education, Fitness, & Sport. Mountainview, CA: Mayfield Publishing.

Wuest, Deborah A. & Bucher, Charles A. (2009). Foundations of Physical Education, Exercise Science, and Sport. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

"Hare and Hound", or "Paperchase" game
" a few runners (the hares) would have a start on the bulk of the field (the hounds), and lay a 'scent' by scattering a paper trail behind them which the hounds would follow. Racing would take place between the hares and the hounds and within the hounds themselves" (Ling, Drexel University)
Elite Runners
XC Championships
1st IAAF World Cross Country Championships- Waregem, Belgium, March 1973
worldwide competitions
divided in age groups, gender, etc.
represent country
run on a team
ex: James Rungaru from Kenya, ran at the IAAF Gold Label Road Race, in Portsmouth, United Kingdom (IAAF)
For Leisure!
For Health!
social activity
run with friends
5k's, 10k's, etc. support a good cause
feel better overall
stay youthful
fit body
maintain cardiovascular health
less likely to have health issues like obesity, diabetes, heart disease, etc.
mental health improved (Wuest, 2009, pg. 373)
Positive social outlet for daily life and dealing with stress in a positive way
Full transcript