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Product Development in Industry
Transcript of Product Development in Industry
Questions to answer:
1.Where do Hybrid Electronics produce their products?
2. How can Hybrid Electronics compete in their high-tech products market?
3. How many people will risk losing jobs in the automotive supply chain?
4. Why has this happened?
5. What is smart manufacturing?
6. What was one of Australia's biggest manufacturing exporters in 2011-2012?
7. What sort of new technologies are set to transform manufacturing?
8. What share of total manufacturing does the textiles industry have in Australia? How much did it make in 2012-13?
Value adding and innovation
Value adding is taking a
design and technology
into a form that is
To be competitive, innovation is required- not just in products, but in processes and systems. This requires big investment in education, training, capital equipment and research and development.
Consumers now have worldwide access to unlimited products in a variety of price ranges. Some people want something unique or special and will pay a lot for it and search high and low to find it. The item may be special or unique due to it being clever, beautiful, sophisticated, more useful, lighter, faster, easier to use or quirky about the design.
When products are offered for equal price, it is design and innovation that gives a product the 'competitive edge'. To catch the eye of consumers they want their product to look great- to have style- to be carefully thought out, and to offer something 'new'.
Role of the manufacturing industry
= when the cost of imports are greater than exports
= tax or fee to be paid on imports or exports
Balance of trade
= the difference between the money going out of the country to pay for imports, and the money coming in through selling exports
The world of new materials grows almost on a daily basis. New materials are constantly being developed by scientists, industry and individuals all over the globe. Some of these developments are radical and innovative, while others are
Fibres filled with silver to be used to create bandages for burns
Manufactured timber made from bamboo
Wood/plastic composites made from plastic found in old carpet fibres
Fabrics that detect changes in heat or heart rate
Various crops that can be processed into fabric, such as soy, bamboo and corn
Scientists examine the structure and mechanical properties of nature to inspire their ideas for designs that we use daily.
Eg. The strength and fatigue of matierals like bone and shells
The surface of moth wings to see how they repel water
the fibres of a spider's web for its strength and flexibility
The surface of a cat's tongue and how it beats gravity when lapping milk
The surface of a gecko's feet that allow them to cling to to shiny surfaces
Research and Development
Nutshell: Companies continually
so they can remain
in the market.
Australian Manufacturing Sectors
Rapid 3D prototyping
3D models are created from a CAD design in a matter of hours re by laying down successive layers of liquid plastic, powdered plastic or some engineering material. It saves companies huge amounts of time usually spent producing prototypes and therefore speeds up the entire product development process.
Factors that contribute to a fluctuating
balance of trade:
Value of the Aussie dollar
GFC (global financial crisis) in 2007- Australia is said to have survived best
The globalisation of world trade
Worldwide trends, fashions and technological developments
The price of oil
Cheaper imported goods
A healthy and viable manufacturing industry that includes exports, helps balance trade figures, and creates employment and opportunity.
Strong employment = increased consumer spending = even more employment
= good quality of life for society
Strong economic growth helps to raise living standards by stimulating enterprise, encouraging innovation and providing a positive environment for technological progress - all leading to an increase in employment and investment
=happy happy happy
Food, beverage & tobacco
Machinery & equipment
Petrol, coal & chemicals
Wood & paper products
Non-metallic mineral products
Textile, clothing & other
Printing & recorded media
Trying alternative materials (lighter, stronger, warmer, more elastic)
Looking at materials developed in other fields eg. food and medicine
Inventing new materials
Checking the competition's products and production methods
Traveling overseas to visit trade shows and exhibitions to trigger ideas
Keeping up-to-date with current technologies and considering how they can be applied
Purchasing samples and 'reverse engineering'
More on pg 342
Laser cut out dress
Laser cutter: saves time and is safer than manual methods
Laser measurer and leveler
New and Emerging Technologies
Robotics, like lasers are
. They can be programmed to work
tasks. Welding, painting, material handling and painting and inspections are their main tasks.
Every developing Technology
The Product Development Process
The Product Design Process
All products go through a variation of this product design process, starting with concept, design, production and distribution, then on to retail.
Feedback from retail is vital as it feeds on to the next round of design and development. It can help improve a product or create a new one.
Starting: Concepts or identifying a need
can start from a range of
- Recognising a consumer need that isn't being met by existing products
- The need to replace or modify an old product that is obsolete or unpopular
- Access to a patent for a product concept or idea
- Technological innovation that allows new products to be developed or current products improved
When developing or modifying products, it is important to investigate relevant information and conduct trialling or testing.
Areas of research include:
- Market needs and interests, products by competitors etc
- The possible innovative use of materials and production processes (application of new technologies)
- New solutions to product functionality
*Research may coincide and support other stages of the Product Development Process
Production and distribution
The product is sold through appropriate outlets or directly to the consumer. A lot of these are online sales.
Consumers use the product until it breaks down, goes out of fashion or becomes obsolete.
They may replace the product, buy a modified version or seek a new one to meet their need.
Sales data and consumer responses are used to refine or modify the product. Information is also gained from retailers, consumers, market research and from sales of competitors. This information is used to evaluate the success of a product.
Product evaluation and modification
Retail and consumer use
If there are minor aspects of the production that need changing, these are done with minimal alterations to production.
Major product changes or redesign requires the company to work through the cycle again.
Once the prototype or computer-modelled product has been finalised, it is put into production in small or large numbers called units.
Components are outsourced if necessary (especially in vehicle manufacture). The production process is carefully monitored, quality is checked at all stages, and modifications to the process are made if they are needed. Distribution and transportation methods are put into operation.
Marketing plays a big part in the success of a product when it becomes available to consumers. Marketers can often be involved in the early stages of product development, finding out information about who would want the product and what features they would want included.
5 P's of marketing
Types of Manufacturing Systems
Scales of Manufacturing
Production occurs at a number of different scales:
-One off manufacturing
-Mass production (continuous production)
One off manufacturing
A customer or designer requires a unique article or large product made to a specific design. It is costly, but usually results in a high quality product. Eg. an engagement ring, boat, special outfit, wedding dress or custom furniture.
Life cycle assessment (LCA)
An LCA is the examination of a product from the sourcing and processing of the raw material, through manufacture, distribution, use and disposal. It is based on scientific evidence, not one based on guesswork or opinions.
'Cradle to cradle' concept
Comes from the old concept 'cradle to grave' approach. This concept emphasises a recycling process for the end of life of a product, so that materials continue to be reused in some way. It also mentions the term 'up-cycling', where materials are reused to create new products that are equal to or greater in value, rather than 'down cycling' which creates new products from old materials that are lesser in value.
Design for disassembly (DfD)
DfD takes the entire product- including its parts and components and how they are joined- into consideration in the design stage.
It aims for easy repair, minimal different types of material in a product.
Enabling the materials to be separated easily for recycle
Labeling materials (especially plastics) for ease in recycling
Extended producer responsibility (EPR)/ product stewardship
EPR, or product stewardship, is an approach which recognises that manufacturers, importers, governments and consumers have shared a responsibility for the environmental impacts of a products life throughout its full life cycle (particularly at the end).
Design for the environment (DfE)
A general approach that uses innovative strategies and techniques to lessen the impacts of products and processes have on the environment. Aims are to reduce the impact of sourcing materials, use less hazardous materials and packaging and reduce waste and pollution.
A product becomes
when it is:
No longer useful or unuseable
Out of date
Cannot be used with current technology
Replaced by another product that is more efficient
'Obsolescence' is the term used for a product that is obsolete. Types of obsolescence include:
Functional and technical obsolescence
Planned obsolescence is when manufacturers design a product to be obsolete
or a few
so consumers will
it. However, this can be blamed for having a very
impact on the
Consequently more and more designers are being encouraged to think more sustainably when designing, which can be led by consumer demand for wanting 'greener' products.
is when manufacturers choose
that the product will be
. The reason is cost- materials that are more durable are often more expensive to source, work with and transport.
Some products are
to maintain and
. Household items such as a toaster might have a plastic knob that breaks and costs more to replace than the price of a new toaster. Products like these become
- they cannot be repaired and must be thrown away if something goes wrong.
A certain level of quality and durability for money must be met for a company's reputation to be maintained. Toughly.
is when products become obsolete when a
. Many companies have a particular time span in mind for the useful life of a product, and plan the introduction of the 'new and improved model' as a replacement. The original may still work, but it replaced because of the added features or capabilities of the new version.
by competitors or in related fields of research may make a product obsolete and force manufacturers to redesign.
Functional and technical obsolescence
relates to the
. Products go through regular changes in appearance and style, which induces people to
the older styled product with something
Different types of products have fashion cycles of differing lengths. Clothing fashions change every 6 to 12 months, for furniture fashions and trends change gradually over a longer period of time.
Trend, fashion and colour forecasting are tools that some designers use to make their designs current and desirable.
is when a very low number of products are made for a specific situation.
involves the manufacture of a specific number of units to fill an order. This is used by designers that have a small or uncertain market. Can be produced locally while numbers are low, compared with companies producing thousands of units use Chinese and other offshore factories.
In batch production, designers and manufacturers can respond quickly to changes in market demand and adapt designs accordingly.
is the production of thousands and sometimes millions of items. This process is usually inflexible, time consuming and expensive to set up so planning is essential. Manufacturers need to be sure there is a market for their product if they are producing huge quantities.
Continuous (volume) production
is the most common type, running 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and usually run by CAM systems.
Production-line or assembly-line production
is a type of mass production often dedicated to completing a single complex product, such as a motor vehicle in an assembly line. May or may not be continuous.
Lean manufacturing- Aims for little or no waste in time, labour, materials and processes with the purpose of improving value for the customer. It is also about having a smooth efficient flow during production to minimise waste. Measurements rather than guestemets are used.
Agile manufacturing- is a
style of manufacturing that allows the manufacturer to
with little notice and without requiring expensive changes in tooling. It means manufacturers can cater for consumer demands and respond to changes in sales.
Robotic manufacturing has enabled manufacturing systems to change more quickly between production modules, only requiring the time needed to download and implement new program instructions rather than the expensive downtime required to retool a traditional production system.
It also relies on a very fast product development process- from initia idea through to the sale in stores in the shortest possible time.
Just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing- is a process of ordering supplies only as they are required. This reduces te need to have expensive stockpiles of raw materials and/or components. This can be harmful if there is a breakdown with a supplier.
Occupational Health and Safety
All work places
take care of their
, as part of their
to their workforce. Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) regulations are used to ensure that
workers carry out safe practices in a safe environment
or harmed. There is a social and legal responsibility for all companies.
All businesses in Australia are
Safe machinery and materials
Safe systems of work
Information, instruction, training and supervision
A suitable working environment and facilities
also have a
unsafe systems or practices.
ISO and Australian Standards
A standard is a published document which sets out technical specifications or other criteria necessary to ensure that a material or method will consistently do the job it is intended to do.
Standards contribute to quality, safety, reliability, fitness for purpose, efficiency and interchangeability. They set out aspects such as measurements and size.
Australia has around 7000 standards, and where possible are similar to International Standards Oraganisation's (ISO) standards.
Most countries have their own standards and they are all set out in the same manner:
Starts with letters that indicate country eg Australia is 'AS', New Zealand is 'NZ', and each International Standard starts with 'ISO'
Has a four digit number which identifies it, followed by the year in which it was created or last updated
Has a title
Quality management is not just about e quality of a product. It is about the implementation of quality management methods, systems, procedures and staff training. Poor quality control can play a significant role in the failure of a company.
Checking the quality of a products
A philosophy about quality and how it will be included in every phase of design and production
A written checklist of points to check
''Quality controllers'', whose job it is to check all aspects of the design process or product development process
Robotic machines scan for faults
If an Australian product has a StandardsMark sticker, this shoes consumers that it conforms to what is expected and has been through rigorous testing and examination.
Who will buy this product?
People are broadly placed into target groups according to:
Personal factors- age, gender, education level, life stages
Psychological factors- needs, wants, attitudes, values, interests, lifestyle, aspirations
Financial factors- level of income, debts, disposable income, type of housing
Social factors- marital status, family size, employment status, ethnic and cultural origin
- The role of manufacturing industries
- Research and development
- New technologies, materials and systems
- International and Australian standards
- Design and innovation and its importance in the product development process
- The role of market research
- The 5 Ps
- Systems and models for sustainability:
• Design for the Environment (DfE)
• Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
• Cradle to cradle concept
• Design for Disassembly (DfD)
• Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) or Product stewardship
- Scales of manufacturing
- The importance of OH&S in manufacturing
Key Knowledge required for SAC 2
What is being sold?
When companies market their product, they need to work out what design features their product has that makes it appealing to specific target markets eg:
Is it the way the product functions
Is it the way the product looks-its form, colour, materials, etc?
Does the product have associations or connections with things that are important to target group eg brand, lifestyle?
What is the price?
The manufacturer determines a price the potential customer will be willing to pay. Pricing strategies also consider the cost of competitive products.
The cost of the product to make and distribute has to be taken into account to ensure a profit is made.
Market research identifies the pricing level that the target group will pay for the product, and also what the potential customer is looking for with quality for money.
Where can it be bought?
Positioning goods available for purchase in locations where consumers need them is vital for marketing.
The product needs to be placed where the target market shop.
Not all places for selling are in shops, a lot of products are sold online, through direct orders and from catalogues.
How will people know about it?
- Advertising on tv, magazines, billboards, packaging, fb, junk mail, bus stops, trams, buses etc
-Sponsorship of groups, institutions and charities, sporting clubs, events and celebrity endorsement
- Competitions and giveaways
- Use of the internet- youtube, search engines and social media