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Transcript of Industrial Revolution
•Revolution begins in ENGLAND in the middle 1700s.
•ENCLOSURES were large farm fields enclosed by fences or hedges.
•Wealthy landowners would buy and enclose land once owned by village FARMERS
•Enclosures allow EXPERIMENTATION with new AGRICULTURAL methods
Factory workers Enclosures Experimentation Rotating Crops:
•CROP ROTATION - switching crops each year to avoid depleting the soil.
•Livestock breeders allow only the best to breed, IMPROVE food SUPPLY
Crop Rotation Why the Industrial Revolution Began in England:
•INDUSTRIALIZATIOn was a way to move to machine production of goods.
•Britain has NATURAL RESOURCES - coal, iron, rivers, harbors.
•Expanding ECONOMY in Britain encourages INVESTMENT
•Britain has all needed factors of production – LAND, LABOR, and CAPITAL
Factors of production Changes in the Textile Industry:
•Weavers work FASTER with flying shuttles and SPINNING JENNIES
•Water frame uses WATER power to drive spinning wheels.
•Power loom, spinning mule speed up PRODUCTION, IMPROVE quality.
•FACTORIES - buildings that contain machinery for manufacturing.
•COTTON GIN boosts American cotton production to meet British DEMAND
•Look at the picture on the right: Who invented the spinning jenny? JAMES HARGREAVES
Improvements in Transportation:
•Need for cheap, convenient power spurs development of STEAM engine.
•James WATT improves steam engine which was financed by Matthew Boulton.
•Boulton was an ENTREPRENEUR - someone who organizes, manages, and takes business RISKS
•Robert FULTON builds the first steamboat, the CLERMONT in 1807.
•England’s water transport improved by SYSTEM of CANALS
•British roads are IMPROVED companies operate them as toll roads.
James Watt's Steam
Engine The Clermont Robert Fulton Crop Rotation Textile Mill Spinning Jenny Cotton seeds Cotton Gin •In 1804 Richard Trevithick builds first STEAM-driven locomotive.
•In 1825, George Stephenson builds the world’s first RAILROAD line.
•ENTREPRENEURS build railroad from Liverpool to Manchester.
•Stephenson’s ROCKET acknowledged as best locomotive in 1829.
•Railroads spur INDUSTRIAL GROWTH and create JOBS
•CHEAPER transportation boosts many industries; people move to CITIES
locomotive George Stephenson Railroad Tracks Industrial Revolution - England