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"Spoken rather than written; verbal."
(Oxford Dictionary, )
"The process where readers strive to understand and respond to ideas that are expressed in written text."
(Mraz, Nichols, Caldwell, Beisley, Sargent, & Rupley, 2013)
Speed + accuracy + prosody = Fluency
(Tompkins, Campbell, & Green, 2012)
Is the act of reading aloud using adequate
speed, accurate phrasing and intonation (prosody) (Mraz, Nichols, Caldwell, Beisley, Sargent, & Rupley, 2013).
What is it?
Why is it needed?
How is it assessed?
How can it be incorporated?
Mraz, M., Nichols, W., Caldwell, S., Beisley, R., Sargent, S., Rupley, W. (2013). Improving oral reading fluency through readers theatre. Reading Horizons, 52(2), 163.
Tompkins, G. E., Campbell, R., & Green, D. (2012). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Frenchs Forest, N.S.W: Pearson Australia
Oral fluency is an important skill associated with being a good reader. With it students have the ability to read fast, accurate and expressively, worrying less about decoding (Wanzek, Roberts,Linan-Thompson,Vaughn,Woodruff, & Murray, 2010).
Fluency increases automaticity skills (word identification) enabling more space in the brain for higher order thinking (comprehension) (Hudsen, lane, pullen, 2005).
Wanzek, J., Roberts, G., Linan-Thompson, S., Vaughn, S., Woodruff, A. L., & Murray, C. S. (2010). Differences in the relationship of oral reading fluency and high-stakes measures of reading comprehension. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 35(2)..
Running Records (Accuracy)
Words correct per minute (WCPM) (Accuracy, Speed)
Repeated reading of various text
Independent or group work
Pairing students of multiple levels enhances ZPD
Focus on fluency with a known text
UDL - effective for all students
(Therrien & Watt, 2012)
In groups, study the readers theater scripts
How can these be used in the classroom?
Are there any limitations?
How can they be overcome?
Scholastic (2002). How to take running records. Derived from: http://www.scholastic.ca/education/movingupwithliteracyplace/pdfs/grade4/runningrecords.pdf
Framework that is designed to explicitly teach the students an aspect of oral reading fluency around three different time periods.
1. 5-7 minutes of teacher explanation and modeling of the elements of fluent oral reading
2. 20 minutes spent on a guided group or individual repeated oral reading practice
3. 2-3 minutes group or individual assessment and progress monitoring
Intended to develop students metafluency of the concepts of oral reading fluency
Lara Beth Clementi. (2010). Readers theater: A motivating method to improve reading fluency. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(5), 85.
Repeated reading using scripts
Students independent reading level
Promotes supportive environment
Students read their roles to the class using appropriate expression.
(Lara Beth Clementi, 2010)
Hudson, R. F., Lane, H. B., & Pullen, P. C. (2005). Rreading fluency assessment and instruction: What, why, and how? The Reading Teacher, 58(8), 702-714. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203280397?accountid=13380
Therrein, W. J., & Watt, S. J. (2012). Repeated reading. International guide to student achievement, 74, 320.
Words accurate per minute
Using the instruction sheet and example passages sheet calculate the average accurate words per minute this student can read.
*Average add the totals and divide by number of totals*
Activity for accuracy
Read the following poem to the students and say I am going to read this poem accurately:
You need to have an iron rear,
to sit upon a cactus.
Or otherwise at least a year,
of very painful practice
Then explain to the students that you are going to re-read it to them inaccurately:
You need to wear an iron tear
To look upon a cactus,
Or otherwise, at least a spear,
Of very painful practice
Have the students use their metalanguage they are developing and discuss what was wrong.
Aspects of being a fluent reader
Universal Design for Learning - caters to all students
Target all three aspects