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Chapter 9: The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and Eastern Europe

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Abbey Krulik

on 9 December 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 9: The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and Eastern Europe

Chapter 9: The Byzantine Empire, Russia, and Eastern Europe
Section 1: The Byzantine Empire
• Constantinople:
Crossroads of land and sea routes - had lots of trade, which made the city wealthy
Strong defenses were put up for the city. It remained secure as other cities of the Western Roman Empire crumbled. Became the capitol of the Byzantine Empire.
• Constantine
renamed & rebuilt
the city of
Byzantium after

Section 2: The Rise of Russia
• Key concept: Russian culture developed differently from Western Europe because of its unique geography and other reasons
• Kiev was the center of the 1st Russian state
• Vikings among Slavs
o During 500 and 600 Slavs spread into present day Russia and south towards Byzantine Empire
o Organized into clans and had small villages along rivers
o Conducted trade with Constantinople

Section 3: Shaping Eastern Europe
Balkan Peninsula: triangular piece of land that goes southward into the Mediterranean
• Ethnic Group: Group of People who share the same language and cultural heritage
• Golden Bull of 1222: Charter limiting the king’s power in Hungary
• Diet: Nobles met in a diet or assembly

Section 2 (continued)
• Moscow takes lead
o During Mongol rule, princes of Moscow increased their power
o Near important river trade routes
o Head of the Russian orthodox church made Moscow his capital, making it a religious and political capital
o As Mongol power declined, Moscow began patriotic defenders against foreign rule
o In 1380 they defeated the horde at the battle of Kulikovo

By Abbey Krulik, Julia Garrard, Nick Nelson, Madi Hedge
Section 1 (continued)
o The Empire eventually declined into a small area around Constantinople, still around 1,000 years after the fall of the western Roman Empire
• Byzantium flourishes under Justinian
o Reached its peak during his rule (527-565)
o Revived Rome by recovering land that had been overrun by invaders
• This weakened their defenses
o Had to rebuild Constantinople because of a fire
• To make it greater than ever he rebuilt the church of Hagia Sophia
o Justinian rules with absolute power
• He ruled as an autocrat, where he had sole authority

Why Constantinople became rich & powerful
As the Germanic tribes invaded Rome, the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople)
When the Roman Empire finally fell, the "new Rome" became known as the Byzantine Empire.
Roads connected the capital to Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.
Still in existence nearly 1,000 years after the fall of Rome.
Blending of Greek, Roman, and Christian traditions with other traditions of the Mediterranean world
Blending of Cultures
• Constantinople
o Vital center of the empire
o Located on the shores of the Bosporus Strait - a strait that links the Mediterranean and Black Seas
o Busiest marketplace in Europe
Trade included:
• Silks from China
• Wheat from Egypt
• Gems from India
• Spices from Southeast Asia
• Furs from Viking lands up north

Section 1 (cont.)

• Also had power over the church
o In turn, led to economic and military strength
• Flourished under a strong central government
• Peasants were the backbone, working the land, paying taxes, and providing soldiers for the military
• Great economy because of the trade happening in the city
Crisis and collapse
• Large areas of Western Europe were getting taken over
• The Byzantines gain influence
o In 800s Constantinople sent Christian missionaries
o 863- 2 Greek brothers (Cyril and Methodius) adapted Greek alphabet to translate bible into Slavic tongue (Cyrillic alphabet)
o In 957, princess Olga of Kiev converted to byzantine Christianity
o During her grandsons (Vladimir) reign the religion spread widely
o After he converted he married the byzantine emperors sister and made orthodox Christianity the religion of the Rus – began to align his country politically and culturally with the Byzantines
o Had many religious text translated into Slavic language

• The Mongols
o In early 1200 Genghis khan united nomadic Mongols and conquered many lands
o Between 1236-1241 Batu (Genghis’s grandson) led Mongols into Russia
o Invaders (called the golden horde) looted Kiev and many Russians killed
o Horde ruled Russia for more then 150 years
o Mongols let princes rule without much interference if they paid high tribute
o Although they were Islam, tolerated Russian beliefs
o Mongol rule brought peace to the land between China and eastern Europe, which made Russian trade easier
o Mongol rule served as model for later Russian rulers and cut Russia off from Europe

• Ivan the Great (Ivan III)
o Drove Moscow’s success
o Brought much of northern Russia under his rule between 1462 and 1505
o Built framework for absolute rule
o Tried to limit power of boyars
o Adopted byzantine court rituals
o Referred to himself as tsar (Russian word for Caesar)
• Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV – grandson to Ivan the great)
o 1547- first to actually be crowed tsar
o Further centralized royal power
o Introduced new laws that tied Russian serfs to the land
o Tradition of absolute power shaped Russian history into 20th century

Justinian...Just to Clarify
The Byzantine Empire reached its peak under Emperor Justinian
He was determined to take back the Roman lands taken by invaders
Re-conquered North Africa, Italy, and parts of Spain
This is only temporary - land is gradually lost again
Justinian's Code
Reformed the laws of the empire
Set up a commission to collect, organize, and revise all of the laws of ancient Rome
became known as Justinian's Code
Monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages modeled their system of law on Justinian's Code
Used as the modern day foundation for international law
• Normans conquered southern Italy
• Seljuk Turks advanced across Asia Minor
• Started to fight the Seljuks which started the 1st crusade (1090’s)
• Constantinople falls to the Turks
• In 1453, Ottoman forces surrounded the city and attacked its walls
• City was renamed Istanbul and became the capital of the Ottoman empire
o Soon emerged as the center of Muslim culture

Christians and Muslims Influence the Region
Powerful neighboring states exercised cultural and religious influences on Eastern Europe
Byzantine Missionaries spread Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Byzantine culture throughout the Balkans
German knights and missionaries from the West brought Roman Catholic Christianity to Poland, Hungary, and Czech area and the western Balkans
In the 1300s, the Ottomans invaded the Balkans and brought Islam into pockets of that region
Three Early Kingdoms Develop
Eastern Europe included many kingdoms and small states
Alliances or royal marriages might bind national groups
Poland, Hungary, and Serbia are examples
Poland enjoys greatness - economy was booming (monarch ->feudalism)
The Magyars rule Hungary
The Serbs establish a Balkan Kingdom
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