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Validity & Reliability of Diagnostics
Transcript of Validity & Reliability of Diagnostics
American Psychiatric Association
V&R issue: Changes in the disorders in the book
Deletion of homosexuality
Changes in eating disorders
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD): ICD-10
World Health Organization
V&R issue: Used mostly for diseases (causes of death)
One chapter containing mental disorders, similar to DSM-IV
The Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD):CCMD-3
V&R issue: Culture based diagnoses for disorders
Koro, Qigong, and ego-dystonic homosexuality
Recent version of DSM does include disorders in homosexuality
Culture causes boundaries in diagnoses (culture-bound)
Western vs. Eastern culture have different views in disorders The systems of diagnosis are not reliable or valid in health approach to treatments
Objections of usage
Culture-bound issues where a disorder is applied at different levels
Schizophrenia: Soviet Union vs. United States
Patients given exaggerated treatments
Ethnic groups, young or elderly, and genders treated differently Two key forms of reliability:
Inter-rater reliability - Patient is studied more than once with other practitioners, using same diagnostic procedures (same day)
Nicholls et al. (2000) - Inter-rater reliability test
DSM-IV,ICD-10, and GOS (Great Ormond Street)
ICD-10=0.357, DSM-IV=0.636, GOS=0.879
GOS reliable on young children
Test-retest reliability - One practitioner observing patient more than once on different days
Mary Seeman (2007) - Schizophrenic patient over time by Justin Huynh Validity Issue Diagnostic guidelines must be used to determine ones disorder (correct diagnoses) Discuss validity and reliability of diagnoses of abnormal behavior. Helpful Studies Nicholls et al. (2000) - Inter-rater reliability test
Wakefield et al. (2007) - Life events effect symptoms of mental disorders
Caetano (1973) - Labeling theory
Rosenhan (1973) - What is normal bahaviour
Langer & Rodin (1976) - Choices
Rotter (1966) - Fate Control
Seligman & Maier (1967) - Learning to be Depressed Pop QUIZ!!! R.D. Laing Diagnostics being more socially influences rather than medically
Thoughts and emotions
Financial, political, and legal implications Thomas Szasz Biological causes of psychological disorders as though it was a disease
i.e. depression as influenza
Wakefield et al. (2007) - Life events effect symptoms of mental disorders How to address LOA questions... 1. What are the systems used to diagnose a patient?
2. What are the current versions of the books discussed?
3. In Chinese culture what were the main two culture-bounded disorders?
4. Name at least ethical considerations that differ when diagnosing.
5. What are the two key forms of reliability? And what do they mean?
6. Name two famous critics who discussed about validity.
7. What was Caetano's (1973) study on?
8. What was Rosenhan's (1973) study on?
BONUS: What were the results of Nicholls' inter-rater reliability test study, numbers from the given systems? Pop QUIZ Answers! 1. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), International Classification of Diseases (ICD), Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (CCMD), and Great Ormond Street (GOS)
2. DSM-IV (or DSM-IV-TR), ICD-10, and CCMD-3
3. Koro and Qigong
4. Ethnicity, Age, Gender
5. Inter-rater reliability - many practitioners diagnose the same patient try to get same result
Test-retest reliability - Same practitioner study the same patient multiple days
6. R.D. Laing and Thomas Szsaz
7. Labelling Theory
8. What is normal behavior
BONUS: ICD-10=0.357, DSM-IV=0.636, GOS=0.879 Biological Talk about ethical considerations (age, gender, ethnicity)
Brain-imaging technology that proves a disorder is present
Explains that medical diagnoses could be similar to psychological diagnoses of disorders.
Possible studies: Gazzaniga (1967) - "Split brain", R.d Laing, and Thomas Szsasz Cognitive Brain-imaging technology
Talking about the patients ability to change their actions in a mental hospital
Validity and reliability explains how cognitive analysis can be hard to determine with many limitations
Possible studies: Nicholls et al. (2000) - Inter-rater reliability test, Rosenhan (1973) - What is normal bahaviour, Langer & Rodin (1976) - Choices, Rotter (1966) - Fate Control, and Seligman & Maier (1967) - Learning to be Depressed Sociocultural CCMD
Ethnicity to be considered in diagnosing
Using this concept can explain how the cultural backgrounds have different views on mental disorders (i.e. Chinese culture)
Possible studies: Wakefield et al (2007) - Life events and symptoms Validity and Reliability of Diagnoses