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Review of related literature and studies
Transcript of Review of related literature and studies
frequency of visits
Review of related literature and studies
(Preedy & watson, 2010)
People has different dietary habits, different choice of food, different preferences.
Tanis Furst, Margaret Connors,
Carole A Bisogni, Jeffrey Sobal & Laura
"Conceptual Model of Food Choice"
2. What is the evaluation of customers in vegetarian dishes?
Statement of the Problem
The vegetarian diet is designed to utilize a combination of vegetable protein providing a similar quantity and quality of protein as animal’s protein
(Ruiz, Claudio, de Castro, 2011).
Health knowledge can have positive impact to health concerns.
The People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) proposed that APEC delegates should eat vegetarian dishes during the summit in the Philippines to show that the foreign leader are serious with the campaign against climate change.
Today’s consumer are faced with the problem of feeding themselves in a way that adds pleasure to their lives and also promotes good health.
Cheng, Lin, Tsai (2014)
the motivation for selecting vegetarian restaurants, the main motivation was “for health” (42.5%) the second motivation for selecting was “prefer natural food” (28.8%) and the third motivation was “reducing global warming” (10.0%). The first consideration to go to the vegetarian restaurants was “for health” (32.9%) and the second consideration was the “food type” (31.5%); as regards the main attractiveness of consuming in a vegetarian restaurant, “for health” (29.2%) again ranked first and “food taste” (25.6%) ranked second.
This chapter aims to discuss the related literature and studies
that may help the researchers establish relevant facts to support the study
Cudal and Biong (2013)
vegetarian diet has shown to improve the senior citizens’ medical condition, but the effect of aging is inevitable.
Lee and Mcleary (2012)
shown that senior customers who
have a positive health attitude
are willing to pay more money
for their healthy menu items.
You would be surprised at the popularity of “healthy” food products. Sales of “healthy” foods have soared in the past several years.
Rosero, (2014) P
People choose vegetarian diet
because of various reasons:
weight loss, religious, obligations, health scares whatever
the motivation, these diet and lifestyles
are becoming mainstream.
“health (62%) was cited as
the most important reason
for adopting a vegetarian
lifestyle, while religious reason (26%)
was the second most important factor”.
Shepherd and Raats (2006)
Wide variety of influences operates to shape particular food choices. The food choice process model clusters these influences into five types: Ideals. These are the standards of people have learned through socialization and acculturation that they use to make food choices. Ideals are culturally learned through families and other institutions, and reflect the plans and expectations for food and eating; personal factors. Characteristics of the individual that influence food choices; resources, these are assets available to people for making food choices. Resources include tangible physical capital such as money, equipment, transportation and space; social factors, relationships in which people are embedded that influence food choices; and last is the context. Contexts are the broader environments within which people make food choices.
Effects of food choices to health
and physical condition were considered
with 53% as very much,
34% as quite much, 12%
as some and 1% as not at all.
Health food restaurants caters
vegetarian and diners who seek
purer food are now an established genre.
They often offer organic food
which is said to have been
produced in absolutely
without use of chemicals.
Many vegetarian won’t eat meat or chicken
because livestock and poultry require so much land, energy, water, and plant food which they consider wasteful.
(Drummond, & Brefere, 2010).
Vegetarian diet helps prevent climate change.
(United Nation, 2006)
Cheng, Lin & Tsai (2014)
"Investigating Consumer Preferences in Choosing Vegetarian
Restaurant Using Conjoint Analysis"
"attention also connotes
awareness and consciousness"
Consumers' food choice is influence by
intrinsic factors and extrinsic factors.
Restaurants should create more innovative,
catchy, appealing and informative techniques
that will attract all generations.
Customers desire and needs change
especially when they dine out.
Today's consumer are face with problem of feeding
themselves in a way that adds pleasure to their
lives and also promotes good health.
"The Impact of Availability of Vegetarian Menu Items on Consumer's
The two in one benefit that customers want to get is not just at home
but also from a food service establishment.
The menu is very important in food service services
because all the activities are centered on the menu.
Many customers are looking for good nutrition on the menu
since many people eat out more than they eat in, restaurants
food is no longer an indulgence that can be high fat and salt
and lacking nutrients.
A menu planner must have the ability and knowledge
to know the likes and dislikes of customers.
social factors such as
friends, family members,
partners, and community members
were the most significant
factors in a person deciding
to become and remain vegan.
The menu planning is very important in food services because all activities are centred on the menu. Creating menu is very complicated because there are things to consider, these are the personnel, the management and of course the consumers of the food to be served (Villanueva, 2010).
“A menu planner must have the
ability and knowledge to know the
likes and dislikes of customers.
It is important that menu
planner knows what are the
needs and desires of a patron or customer”
(Vegetarian times, 2005).
the accessibility of packaged soy goods and the well-publicized health benefits of a soy based meatless diet that have pushed vegetarianism into the common style and made traditionally vegetarian foods available into grocery stores
Kumar, Dhiman, and Dahiya (2015).
The relationship between the restaurant attribute
“convenience” and customer’s return patronage
intention to the restaurant, which was tested
using the Chi-square statistics, showed that
there was a significant between the two variables.
Clavo, Perez, Feliciano, Dela Cruz, (2013)
customer’s expectation with regards to
food and beverage mainly focused with
the quality and completeness rather than
Therefore, the quality of healthy
menu choices may influence the
(Evans, Jamal, & Foxall, 2006).
Satisfaction with the purchase is a good starting point for repeat purchasing, which could be cultivated to develop loyalty, advocacy and even relational interaction between the organization brand and consumer
Customers frequency of visits is a vital part
of restaurant marketing plan.
The Conceptual Model
of Food Choice
represents three main
components of factors
involved in food choice:
life course, the influences,
and personal system.
3. What are the factors
that influence the customer'c choice in eating in a vegetarian restaurant?
4. How does the healthy menu
choices affect the patronage of
customers in a vegetarian
Scope and Limitation
This study will be limited to selected vegetarian restaurants in Quezon City. The target participants in this study are 25 customers in each selected 4 vegetarian restaurants.
This study will determine the relation of healthy menu to the customer’s preference in choosing restaurants and how will it help the vegetarian restaurants to maintain customers. The coverage of this study will identify if healthy menu will affect to the patronage of the customers. The duration of this study is from November 2015-August 2016.
Significance of the Study
Future Restaurateurs/ Food Establishment Owners
This study can provide information to the future restaurateurs who wants to engage in vegetarian restaurants business and may give the food establishment owners additional information on what a typical customer wants in order for them to visit a restaurant frequently.
Hotel and Restaurant Management Students
This study will help the HRM students to have additional information about what a vegetarian restaurant is, and its role in foodservice industry.
This study will serve as a guide to the researchers for their studies.
Definition of Terms
Health food restaurant
. A restaurant that cater vegans, vegetarians and diners who seek purer food are now an established genre (Thomas, 2006).
It is a variety of food choices that are healthy and offered mostly in a vegetarian restaurant and sometimes in the other types of restaurants.
Support given to a business by repeat purchasing the products offered in the particular business establishment.
Sense of Influence.
A drive which affects someone’s decision in choosing a vegetarian restaurant.
It is a person that eats most culinary items except meat, poultry, fish, crustaceans or shellfish (Garlough, 2011).
It is a restaurant that serves primarily or exclusively health foods which are said to be organic and are produced naturally without chemicals.
The method that the researchers will be using is descriptive method. Descriptive method uses questionnaires. Getting the opinions from the participants can provide the researcher reliable information, as well as a legitimate conclusion about the role of healthy menu choices to the patronage of customers that will be conducted in selected vegetarian restaurants in Quezon City.
Participants of the Study
The participants of the study will be a total of one hundred twenty-five (100) customers, twenty five (25) from each of the five (4) selected Vegetarian Restaurants in Quezon City. The participants will be randomly selected from the customers of the restaurant. They will be chosen because they can provide answers that will help the researchers gather necessary data that are reliable enough.
Questionnaire is the research instrument used in this study.
The instructions are clearly stated what the respondents needed to do and the questions were formed so the researchers could also get detailed answers.
All in the entire questionnaire is divided into two parts, the first part of the question will be about the demographic profile of the customer and the second part is the questions about influence of healthy menu choices and patronage. The whole questionnaire will look like a menu for the purpose of attractiveness and also decrease the respondents’ bore while answering the questions.
Data Gathering Procedures
The researchers will prepare a letter to formally ask the approval of the owner or person in charged in the restaurant where the researchers will be conducting the study. Once the proposal is approved, the researchers will prepare questionnaire that will be used in their study and do the steps to validate it. When the questionnaire is already validated, the researchers will start the distribution of the copies of approved questionnaire to the customers (respondents) of four selected vegetarian restaurants in Quezon, City. The researchers will distribute the questionnaires from afternoon to early evening, the time when the customers are likely to eat. The questionnaire will be collected right after the participants finished answering it. The researchers will evaluate, analyze and interpret the data that will be gathered.
The researcher will use weighted mean and frequency percentage in interpreting the data. It is utilized to analyze the overall response of the participants by rating the qualities of Healthy Menu Choices.
∑Formula: WM = ∑fw
WM = Weighted Mean
∑ fw = Sum of frequency multiplied by weight
N = Total number of participants
Components of factors
involved in food choice
*Personal Food System
Sense of influence of healthy menu choices to the patronage of customers
customer’s frequency of visits is a vital part of restaurant marketing plan. Frequency of visits signals consistency in maintaining the established customer base. Customers may patronize vegetarian restaurant if they are satisfied and have met their expectation in terms of products and services offered.
Menu labels had an effect on the food
choices of the respondents.
However, taste remained as
top priority in choosing meals.
The following scale will be used to determine the
impact of healthy menu choices in choosing a restaurants and how it help to maintain the patronage of customers.
Rating Scale Range Interval Qualitative Description
5 4.50-5.00 Very Satisfied
4 3.50 - 4.49 Satisfied
3 2.50 -3.49 Partially Satisfied
2 1.50- 2.49 Dissatisfied
1 1.00 -1.49 Very Dissatisfied