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OHIO BATS: Caring for Crevice Roosting species and Tree Roos

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Ann Wookey

on 5 August 2016

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Transcript of OHIO BATS: Caring for Crevice Roosting species and Tree Roos

Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus)
Abundant and wide spread in Ohio.
The most common Ohio bat in urban areas.
The only Ohio bat that hibernates in buildings.
One of the last bats to hibernate in the fall.
Hibernate at warmer temps, around 49 degrees.
Strong homing instinct.
Most will return if released within 250 miles of their maternity colony.
Most stay within 30 miles of their summer roosts.
Beetles make up a majority of their wild diet.
Males are more aggressive than females, especially in fall and winter.
Emit a musky odor under extreme stress.
Formerly knows as Eastern Pipistrelle bat.
Called tri-colored bat because its fur is dark at the base, light in the middle and has reddish brown tips.
The smallest bat in Ohio.
Calm, but they do not like being restrained.
Some similarities to tree bats.
This species roosts in foliage sometimes and is relatively solitary.
Can give off musky odor when frightened.
Some learn to self-feed quickly, others do not.
Can take 2-14 days to learn to self-feed.
Some never take to mealworms and must be handfed the soft food diet.
They can eat a lot for their small size.
In Ohio, it is often the first species to hibernate in fall and last to emerge in spring.
Tri-Colored Bat (Perimyotis subflavus)
The Crevice Bats
The Tree Bats
Silver Haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)
Only found in Ohio during spring and fall migration.
May struggle violently and act fierce when restrained initially.
Behaviors may include: snapping, chewing with unfocused eyes, biting at mealworms but not swallowing, spitting out or not swallowing fluids, and twitching of head or extremities.
These behaviors can look like symptoms of rabies.
Very intelligent, can learn to self-feed in one session.
Readily roost with Big Brown Bats.
Males not prone to aggression if housed together.
Evening Bat (Nycticeius humeralis)
Found mostly in Southern Ohio.
Human care can cause extreme stress.
May emit a musky odor when stressed.
Usually learn to self-feed in 3-5 days.
Females often learn to self-feed faster then males.
Prone to stop self-feeding on occasion so they may require extended periods of hand-feeding.
Small juvenile evening bats are often confused with the Indiana bat.
Evening bats have only one upper incisor on each side of their jaw, Indiana bats have two on each side.
Migrate south for winter.
Rafinesque's Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)
Do not confuse with the long-eared bat. They are different species.
Southern Ohio is the northern most part of their range.
Only two known bats found in Ohio.
In 1953 and 1960
Both in Adams County
Bones from this bat have been found in Miami County
They are found year round in caves in Kentucky.
Feed almost entirely on moths.
By Ann Wookey, Ohio Wildlife Center

The Myotis Species of Ohio:
Little Brown, Northern long-eared, Indiana and Small-footed Bats.
All these bats in the genus Myotis.
The Latin genus Myotis means "mouse ear".
They are the most difficult of the Ohio bat species to tell apart.
Highly intelligent and curious. Most learn to self-feed in 1-2 days.
They dislike change in their environment.
They can learn to trust their caretakers if it is the same person using the same routine.
Major changes like switching caretakers should be done gradually over a period of several days.
Stress from change is often exhibited by panic and refusing to self-feed.
They will roost with other species in captivity.
Males are calmer and more manageable than females.
Very vocal and extremely fast.
Will take flight even in tight quarters.
Like to roost under tree bark.
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)
Nervous, can be squirmy when held.
Larger than the other myotis species but has a smaller jaw and eats smaller prey.
More diverse diet than other myotis species.
Eat flies, moths, caddis flies, beetles, midges and other aquatic insects.
Will take aquatic insects off the surface of the water.
Most commonly found near water.
Roosts in groups numbering in the 1000's.
Are being hit real hard by WNS.
Northern Long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionais)
Relatively calm. Often not as nervous and squirmy as Little Brown or Indiana bats.
Diet is 94% moths. Will also eat beetles, flies and spiders.
Can eat its prey off the surface of foliage and other objects.
Longer ears and tragus than other bats of similar size. Ears of adults are 14 - 18 mm, tragus is 9 - 11 mm.
One of the smaller myotis bats. Adults average 5-10 grams.
Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis)
Looks similar to Little Brown Bat.
Indiana bat has shorter fur that is less shiny and hair color is often more grey then brown.
Only 2 places in Ohio where the Indiana bat is known to hibernate:
Mines in Lawrence and Preble Counties.
While classified as a crevice bat, they form nursery colonies in the bark of dead or dying trees, often using several trees in the same area.
A federal and state endangered species.
Small-footed Bat (Myotis leibii)
Extremely rare in Ohio.
Only one bat found in Ohio.
It was found in Erie County, Ohio in 1842.
1842 was 39 years after Ohio became a state.
The person who found the bat lived in Erie Township Michigan.
Researchers labeled the bat from Erie Co. Ohio.
Maps not accurate in 1800's.
Can not be certain bat was really from Ohio.
This species has been found in every state bordering Ohio except Michigan.
Not found in Indiana until 2009.
It has a black face mask that is the result of sparsely haired black skin.
How to ID the 4 species of myotis bats found in Ohio
Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)
Long toe hairs, hairs longer than toes
Lack of keeled calcar
Northern long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis)
Long cone shaped pointed tragus (9-11 mm)
Long ears (14 - 18 mm)
Small bat, 5 - 10 grams
Small-footed Bat (Myotis leibii)
Smallest: 4 - 6 grams
Short forearm (30-34 mm)
Strongly keeled calcar
Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis)
Moderately keeled calcar
Blunt, short tragus
Eastern Red Bat (Lasiurus borealis)
One of the most common bats in Ohio.
Hibernate in leaf litter.
Go into torpor around 68 degrees F.
Give birth to 3-4 pups in mid June.
Most bats have only 1-2 pups.
Red bat females have 4 teats.
Most other species have 2 teats.
Ohio Tree Bats in General
Roost in trees, camouflaged by leaves.
Are solitary.
Migrate: leave Ohio in October or November and return in March or April.
When stressed they may flip on their back, wings out wide, make a clicking or hissing sound, strike out with wings and jump forward.
Often hang by one foot.
The Four Myotis Bats:
Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus)
Largest bat in Ohio.
The most widespread US bat.
Found throughout the US and much of Canada and Central America but their numbers are low so the are rarely encountered by people.
Come out to feed well after dark, later at night than most other bats.
Passive, calm and tolerant once they get over initial shock of captivity.
Rarely vocal.
Exhibit emotion through ear position, posture and facial expression.
Note the hunchback posture
Little Brown Bat on the left and Indiana Bat on the right.
A female Eastern red bat.
Males are more reddish in color.
Ohio Bat Species
Caring for Crevice Bats and Tree Bats
Feeding / Watering:
Temperature, Lighting and Humidity:
Average Life Span:
Flight Practice:
Handling Crevice Bats and Tree Bats
Crevice bats should be held gently in a closed secure hand.
They are comfortable in confined spaces.
Tree bats prefer to be held loosely in a more open hand.
Tree bats held too tightly may panic and try to escape.
Being held too tightly is very stressful for tree bats and they may react violently to being confined.
Violent behaviors may include biting, snapping, chewing with unfocused eyes, biting at food but not swallowing, spitting out fluids, twitching.
These behaviors often look like symptoms of rabies.
Housing Crevice Roosting Species
Roosts selected by crevice roosting bats typically have hard surfaces.
They prefer the seclusion of solid walled enclosures.
Tight spaces give them a sense of security.
Enclosures should be large enough that bats can spread their wings without touching the sides.
Towels hung in enclosures also provide a sense of security.
Towels should not have loops that nails can get caught in.
Towels should not have any holes or loose strings around the edge.
The cloth bags that mealworms are shipped in make good roosts for crevice bats.
Housing Tree Roosting Species
Tree bats do not do well in small confined spaces.
These bats need large enclosures with soft mesh sides and ceilings.
They may try to fly, even with severely injured wings, if housed in small enclosures.
Use caution with reptariums, their mesh may irritate wing tips and can be hard on feet and thumbs.
Best to line reptraiums with soft mesh drawer liner.
Tree bats are prone to abrasions on thumbs, forearms, and toes in captivity.
Tree bats are solitary, always house adults alone except pups should stay with mom until they are weaned then separate pups from mom.
Items for Tree Bat Enclosures
Tree bat enclosures can have:
artificial (silk) plants to hide in
branches with real leaves to hide in
small rough branches to hang from
rough branches aid in foot health and naturally trim nails.
tree bark and mature grapevine branches
also help keep nails and claws warn down
small wicker baskets hung upside down to hide in
Different Diets for Different Species
Ohio bats do not eat random insects.
Different bat species eat different types of insects.
The diets of different bat species are determined by the bats:
wing size and shape
tooth structure
cranial structure
amount of muscle mass in the skull
habitat where they feed
availability of insects
What Do Ohio Bats Eat?
Myotis bats eat small moths, hoppers, beetles and flies
Tri-colored bats eat beetles, hoppers and flies
Red bats eat moths, beetles and hoppers
Hoary and Big-eared bats eat moths
Big brown and Evening bats eat beetles and true bugs (cicadas, aphids, planthoppers, leafhoppers, shield bugs, and others)
Even when a group of insects (i.e. beetles or moths) are eaten by different species of bats, these different bat species may eat beetles or moths of different species, sizes or from different habitats.
Most bats do not eat mosquitoes unless they are very abundant or larger insects are not available.
There is not much nutrition in a mosquito
What does this mean for a bat caretaker?
Not all bat species do well on mealworms
Big brown bats do relatively well on fortified mealworms
Other bat species do not do well on mealworms
It is important to select the right food for the particular species of captive bats.
Differences in a bat's skull shape, jaw, and teeth structure vary depending on the hardness of the insects that they eat.
Species of bats that have larger muscle mass in their skulls and canine teeth that are closer together (i.e. Big brown bats) eat insects with hard exoskeletons such as beetles.
Bat species (i.e. little brown bats) that feed on softer food such as moths have longer rostra and weaker jaw muscles.
What to Feed Captive Bats?
Researchers analyzed the fecal matter of wild bats to determine what insects they ate.
The insects were rated by hardness of their body
1 = softest insects
5 = hardest insects
The diets of bat species were then rated 1 - 5 according to what insects they ate.
Five captive diets were then developed to meet the needs of different bat species.
Hardness Ratings of Ohio Bat Diets
Little brown bat - 1.42
Silver-haired bat - 1.75
Hoary bat - 2.47
E. Red bat - 2.52
Tri-colored bat - 2.77
Evening bat - 3.24
Indiana bat - 3.85
Big brown bat - 4.14
The Captive Diets
DIET A: 1.00 - 1.99 (Little brown and Silver-haired bats)
Primarily waxworms and fly larvae (maggots)
1 -2 times per week feed 25% mealworms or crickets
DIET B: 2.00 - 2.99 (E. Red, Hoary and Tri-colored bats)
75% waxworms, 25% mealworms
twice a week replace mealworms with crickets
DIET C: 3.00 - 3.99 (Indiana and Evening bats)
85% mealworms, 15% waxworms
twice a week 25% of diet should be crickets
DIET D: 4.00 - 4.99 (Big brown bats)
100% mealworms
1-2 times per week give 25% diet of crickets
1-2 times per month give 25% diet of waxworms
More on the Captive Diets
Diet A
Mealworms and crickets are given to reduce plaque buildup on teeth and minimize gum inflammation.
Diet B
Crickets are for variety and to reduce plaque buildup on teeth and minimize gum inflammation.
Diet C
Crickets are for variety, enrichment and oral health.
Diet D
Crickets for oral health and waxworms for enrichment.
Diet E
No Ohio bat gets this diet. These bats are exclusive beetle eaters like the Leaf-nosed bat.
Probably should not feed the mealworm beetles. They contain toxic quinones though several free ranging bat species have been known to feed on them.
Soft-food Diet (Bat Mash)
It is a diet of pureed mealworms with vitamins and supplements mixed in.
It can be given once a week to all captive insectivore bats to help prevent nutritional deficiencies. Especially for bats in long term care.
Signs of nutritional deficiencies may include hair loss, dull patchy coat and depigmentation of wing membranes.
Hair loss may also indicate other health problems.
Bats unable to chew solid food can be maintained on this diet for the remainder of their life.
Ingredients in the soft food diet will help prevent dental issues.
Dental issues are often a problem in long term captive bats.
Big Brown bats are particularly susceptible to dental issues such as plaque deposits, gum infections and absesses.
Debris on toes of Big Brown bats may indicate tooth or gum problems.
They comb their toe nails through their fur to groom then they remove the debris from their toes with their teeth. Bats with sore teeth may not keep their toes clean.
Feeding Bats in General
Self-feeding bats in rehab may occasionally not eat for one night.
This is normal and will happen periodically.
If a bat that normally self-feeds stops eating for 2-3 nights in a row hydrate that bat with lactated ringers at 0.05 ml/g of body weight and hand-feed favorite insects or soft food diet.
If feeding wild caught insects to captive bats, do fecal exams every 6 months to check for parasites.
Make sure wild caught insects species are appropriate for bat being fed and do not collect insects where pest controls are used.
Allow pregnant and lactating females to eat as much as they want.
Always offer water, usually by syringe, until bats regularly self-feed.
Feeding and Weight
It is normal for bats to increase weight in fall and lose weight in spring.
In the fall a bat's body mass can increase 20-30% in less than two weeks.
This is achieved by spending more time in torpor after feeding, not by eating more.
This is why rehab bats gain weight in the fall when caretakers did not increase their diet.
Big brown bats can become very overweight in the fall and winter.
Occasionally a bat may become very food aggressive (especially in fall) if food is restricted too much in order to maintain weight.
Need to balance psychological need to eat and gain weight in the fall while not letting them get too overweight.
It is very difficult to get bats to loose weight in the fall, much easier late winter and early spring.
Feeding Crevice Bats
Most crevice bats can be taught to self-feed.
Big brown bats usually learn to eat mealworms from a dish or off the floor of their enclosure fairly quickly.
A 1-2 inch deep smooth sided bowl for mealworms works best for most bats.
Best water dishes are glass dishes, 1/4 - 3/4 inch deep.
Water bowls deeper than 3/4 inch deep increase possibility of drowning.
Big brown bats, little brown bats and some myotis species may learn to self-feed by watching other bats self-feed.
Feeding Tree Bats
Tree bats do not seek out food or water in their enclosures.
E. Red bats will not go to the floor of their enclosures to find food or water.
Tree bats are more difficult to teach to self-feed and must be hand fed or placed in a position over dish of mealworms at feeding time.
Water dish should be less then 3/4 in deep and placed up high in the enclosure within easy reach of their daytime roosting place.
Even then they may not drink from a dish.
Always offer water by hand to tree bats and soak their insect in water before feeding.
These bats become dehydrated easily in captivity.
Always monitor for dehydration.
Dehydrated bats may have dull and dry wing membranes as well as sunken eyes.
Some tree bats may require sub-Q fluids periodically.
Temperature is the most important physical factor in roost selection.
Bats need warmer roosts to give birth and cooler roosts for hibernation.
Most Ohio bats in captivity do well at a room temperature 77 - 82 F.
Big brown bats prefer a slightly cooler temperature.
Sick bats benefit from a slightly higher temperature.
A bat that is lethargic or hangs with its wings open may be too hot.
Caution: torpor can easily be mistaken for lethargy.
Infant bats without fur need warmer temperatures.
Infant bats being hand-fed formula need temps around 90 F.
Temperature can be lowered gradually over several weeks as the pup becomes able to thermoregulate its body temperature.
Do not expose bats to drafts.
Pregnant females need an ambient temperature of 90 - 100 F.
They should be in an incubator.
All captive bats need a natural light and dark cycle.
A natural day / night light cycle is needed to regulate metabolic processes and maintain good health.
If there are no windows in the room use a light timer to simulate a natural light cycle.
Timers should reflect changing day length.
Bats should never be housed in continuous light or darkness.
Avoid compact fluorescent light bulbs. They can emit ultrasonic sounds that can cause an adverse reaction in bats.
I had a young big brown bat in home care that would get very agitated and scratch his ears often when I put him in a room that had compact fluorescent bulbs.
Bats kept in a room with too low of humidity can have problems with dehydration resulting in loss of appetite and dry wing membranes.
Wing membranes of well hydrated bats will appear glossy.
The high humidity that bats have in the wild can not be safely achieved indoors.
Most bats hibernate in a humidity of 66 - 95%.
High humidity indoors promotes mold growth and this poses a risk to bats and people.
Maintaining a relative humidity (RH) of 60% indoors is an acceptable level for adult bats and inhibits mold growth.
RH below 62% stops all chance of mold growth and most mold won't grow under 70%.
Sick, infant and weak bats need a higher relative humidity level.
It is especially difficult to achieve proper humidity levels indoors in the winter.
Buildings are normally very dry environments in winter.
Ways to increase humidity in a room during winter:
humidifier (must be cleaned weekly)
pans or dishes of water set on top of space heaters
wet towels placed over heating vents
misting with water the sides of the enclosures that bats are kept in
Keeled calcar
Tragus: a flap of skin at the base of the external ear
How long do they live?
Crevice bats have a much longer lifespan then tree bats, both in the wild and in human care.
Hoary and Red bats typically only survive 1 - 4 years (6 years max.) in human care.
Big brown bats have lived for 23+ years in human care.
Banded little brown bats have lived for over 30 years in the wild.
There is no reliable non-harmful way to determine the age of an adult bat.
Tooth wear and changes in the eyes are not reliable.
Ossification of bones can be used to distinguish juvenile bats from adult bats. Look at the metacarpal-phalangeal wing joint in front of a small bright light.
Getting bats ready for release.
Act of flying places great stress on the wing bones of bats.
Young bats must be near adult size and have good bone density before they can fly.
Bats must be able to demonstrate perfect flight ability before being released.
They must be able to sustain flight for 10 -20 minutes non-stop and must be able to land on the ceiling or upper part of room or flight cage.
A bat that lands on the floor is not ready for release.
Bats that have been in human care for more than a few days should be given daily flight exercise.
As a rule of thumb, bats need one night of flight practice for every week they have been in captivity.
Flight practice should be 10-20 min per day.
Do not fly right after feeding.
Hold bat in gloved hand over head and allow bat to take flight when ready.
If netting a bat in flight is necessary, make sure hoop size of net is larger than the wingspan of the bat.
Netting a bat in flight poses risk of physical injury to the bat.
Releasing Crevice Bats
Release crevice bats at nightfall, not dusk. Easier for predators to find bats at dusk.
Release bat in the same place where it was found. If original location is not known release bat in an area that provides adequate habitat for the particular species.
Best to put the bat in an unoccupied bat house, it can leave when it is ready.
If the bat is still in the bat house the next day, palpate the abdomen to see if the bat ate overnight. Often bats that are still in the bat house the next day don't leave or eat over night. In this case the bat is not ready for release. Remove bat from bat house, continue to feed and try again at a later date.
If using a bat house is not possible, release the bat by allowing it to hang from a gloved hand extended above the person's head and allow bat to fly off when ready.
Do not toss bat into the air.
Take a flashlight along during release in case retrieval of bat is necessary.
If bat does not fly off on its own, attempt to release again at a later date.
Do not place bat on the side of a tree or building, it may be eaten by a predator before it flies away.
Releasing Tree Bats
Tree bats should be released in the early afternoon, not at night.
They can be released in the general area from which they were found.
Place the bat in the branches of a tree (not on the trunk) at least 10 feet off the ground with a clear drop underneath.
Best to put the bat in a small forked branch with rough bark and leaves.
Do not disturb bat prior to release, especially moms with pups.
If disturbed, female bat may fly off and leave her pups behind.
Monitor bat after release.
I released mama red bat and her four pups this past summer.
I put all bats in a tree in early afternoon. Pups were attached to mom.
Mama bat was still with her pups when I checked on them in the evening.
Sometime over night mama bat left all her pups behind.
She did not come back to feed her pups for over 24 hours.
Eventually she did come back, about a day and a half later, and was nursing all of her pups.
The next day mom and pups left together.
Releasing Hand-Raised Orphans
Recent data finds that hand-raised bat pups can survive after release without the opportunity to learn how to hunt insects from their mothers.
Pups have the innate ability to capture insects without being taught, as long as they have proficient flight skills prior to release.
Orphaned red bats have learned to forage and avoid predators on their own.
Big brown bat pup admitted to rehab in June 2003, weighing 2.9g, was released in August 2003 and recaptured one month later in excellent physical condition weighing 17.0g.
The Soft-food Diet Recipe
Put 1 and 1/2 cups mealworms in the freezer for at least a few hours.
In a glass blender put 1/2 cup very cold water and gradually add frozen mealworms while blending on highest setting.
Blend water and mealworms until it's the consistency of honey.
Make sure mealworm mix remains cool while blending. If it overheats it will spoil.
Adding an ice cube while blending can help mixture remain cool and prevent spoiling.
In a separate bowl mix together the following ingredients:
1 tablespoon of water
2 tablespoons bland baby food (sweet potato, apple, peas, carrots, pear etc.)
2 teaspoons of Missing Link (by Well Blend)
2 teaspoons Vionate (vitamin / mineral supplement)
2 teaspoons powdered Nutro All Natural Tarter Control Dog Biscuit
1/16 teaspoon CoQ-10 powder
1.5 ml Equine Essential healthy mouth
1/2 teaspoon organic flax oil (decrease amount if loose stools occur)
Add the babyfood / vitamin mixture to 1 cup of mealworm mash and stir until very smooth
Recipe makes enough for 15 - 20 bats
Feeding the soft-food diet.
The soft-food diet can be kept in a refrigerator for 3 days or in a freezer for up to 30 days.
Soft-food diet that has already been thawed should not be refrozen.
Make sure mealworms are blended well or clumps will clog syringes while feeding.
Can test by trying to draw up mealworms mix in syringe while in blender.
Best to use 1 or 3 cc syringes for feeding the soft food diet.
Once syringe is filled with soft food diet place syringe in bowl of warm water.
Food should be moderately warm when fed.
Hold bat so head is parallel to its body and place a drop of food in the bats mouth.
Never feed a bat in a head up position when feeding any food.
Point the syringe toward the chin to avoid getting soft diet in the bat's nose.
Feed slowly. Some bats may try and eat too fast causing them to aspirate.
Feed soft food diet twice a day if it is the only food a bat is getting.
A 10-20 g bat will eat 1.0 - 2.0 ml per feeding.
A 20-35 g bat will eat up to 3.0 ml per feeding.
Soft food diet that is turning rancid will develop air bubbles that can be seen in the syringe.
Little brown bat toe hairs
Soft-food Diet:
C3PO a Big Brown Bat
C3PO developed patchy hair loss and severe wing depigmentation after being in rehab for an extended period of time.
Started him on:
soft-food diet twice a week
one drop of organic flaxseed oil per day
misted wings with pure aloe spray once a day to help with dryness
Wings were greatly improved after three weeks.
Wings completely healed after about six weeks.
Patchy hair cleared up and coat looked normal after about eight weeks.
No other treatment or medication was given.
Severe wing depigmentation
Same wing three weeks after treatment
Sources Used
Barnard, Susan M. Bats in Captivity: Biological and Medical Aspects. Vol 1. 1st. ed. Washington DC: Logos Press, 2009. Print.
Barnard, Susan M. Bats in Captivity: Aspects of Rehabilitation. Vol 2. 1st. ed. Washington DC: Logos Press, 2010. Print.
Barnard, Susan M. Bats in Captivity: Diet and Feeding-Environment and Housing. Vol 3. 1st. ed. Washington DC: Logos Press, 2011. Print.
Barnard, Susan M. Bats in Captivity: Legislation and Public Education. Vol 4. 1st. ed. Washington DC: Logos Press, 2012. Print.
Brack Jr., Virgil. Bats of Ohio. 1st. ed. Indiana: Indiana State University Center for North American Bat Research and Conservation, 2010. Print.
Lollar, Amanda. Standards and Medical Management for Captive Insectivorous Bats. 1st. ed. Mineral Wells, Texas: Bat World Sanctuary Publications, 2010. Print.
Reptarium by Apogee
Aphids, a type of true bug
Hoppers (also known as leafhoppers)
It is unfortunate that the average person has a deep prejudice against the bat.

Without looking or thinking for himself, he accepts a lot of absurd tales about the winged one, and passes them on and on, never caring for the injustice he does or the pleasure he loses.

The bat is the climax of creation in many things, highly developed in brain, marvelously developed in senses, clad in exquisite fur and equipped, above all, with the crowning glory of flight.

He is the prototype and realization of the Fairy of the Wood we loved so well as children, and hated so to be robbed of by grown-ups, who should have known better.

I would give a good deal to have a bat colony where I could see it daily, and would go a long way to meet some new kind of bat.

Earnest Thomas Seaton,

Cartilaginous joint of a juvenile bat on the left. Calcified joint of an adult bat on the right.
Calcar: a piece of cartilage that extends from the heel to support the wing membrane. Keeled: amount of bend or angle of the calcar.
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