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Aristotle and Fellow Greeks
Transcript of Aristotle and Fellow Greeks
Aristotle had rejected the atomic theory, he didn't believe the ancient greek theory of atoms being of different shapes and sizes. But Aristotle and fellow Greeks provided us with the knowledge of physics which gave us a lot of information on astronomy, meteorology, plants, and animals. He developed a theory, that all matter consisted of four elements, fire, water, earth, and air.
Indivisible, solid sphere model
Democritus (460-370 BC)
Democritus developed the idea of atoms. He asked this question: If you break a piece of matter in half, and then break it in half again, how many breaks will you have to make before you can break it no further? Democritus thought that it ended at some point, a smallest possible bit of matter. He called these basic matter particles, atoms.
He had contributed to the atomic theory by inventing the concept of an atom.
Lavoisier was the considered the father of modern chemistry. A lot of his work was devoted to the study of combustion. He had also devised a theory of the formation of the chemical compounds from elements.
Lavoisier discovered "The Law of Conservation of Mass"
Atomic Model Time Line Project
John Dalton (1803)
John proposed an "atomic theory" with spherical solid atoms based upon measurable properties of mass. He had performed experiments with various chemicals that showed that matter seemed to consist of lumpy particles (atoms). Although he did not know about their structure. He had also proposed that each atom had consisted of different weights.
J.J Thompson (1856-1940)
Thompson had discovered the electron in 1897. He had discovered the electron from the cathode ray tube. He defined an atom as a large positively charged body that contained small, free-floating, negatively charged particles called electrons. - Plum pudding model.
While studying the effect of x-rays on photographic film, he discovered some chemicals spontaneously decompose and give off very penetrating rays. Becquerel had also discovered X-rays by observing the fluorescence they gave off.
Marie Sklodowska Curie (1898)
Marie had studied uranium and thorium and called their spontaneous decay process "radioactivity". She and her husband Pierre also discovered the radioactive elements polonium and radium. She was the first woman scientist to become worldwide famous and also the first woman in europe to recieve her doctorate of science.
Ernest Rutherford (1898)
Rutherford studied radiations emitted from uranium and thorium and named them alpha and beta and had came up with the nucleus theory in 1910. He had also created the atomic theory describing the atom as having a central positive nucleus surrounded by negative orbiting electrons.
He is also known for creating the nuclear model.
Rutherford's Nuclear Model
Albert Einstein (1905)
Albert had published the famous equation E=mc 2.
Albert Einstein wrote a ground-breaking paper that explained that light absorption can release electrons from atoms, a phenomenon called the "photoelectric effect." Einstein received his only Nobel Prize for physics in 1921 for his work on the photoelectric effect.
Robert Millikan (1909)
Robert is best known for his work in atomic physics and major science, dealing with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results produced by these forces. He was also known for measuring the charge on the electron, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1923.
Neils Bohr (1922)
Bohr had developed an explanation of atomic structure that underlies regularities of the periodic table of elements. His atomic model had atoms built up of sucessive orbital shells of electrons. He had succeeded in working out on the picture of atomic structure.
In the planetary model electrons travel around the nucleus in orbits. As an electron gets excited it is able to jump over entire orbit levels.
Erwin Schrodinger (1930)
Erwin viewed electrons as continuous clouds and introduced "wave mechanics" as a mathematical model of the atom. He used mathematical equations to describe the likelihood of finding an electron in a certain position.
His atomic model does not define the exact path of an electron, but rather, predicts the odds of the location of the electron.
Electron Cloud Model
James Chadwick (1932)
James used alpha particles discovering a neutral atomic particle with a mass close to a proton. Thus was discovered the neutron. He established that atomic number is determined by the numbers of protons in an atom. He also discovered the fourth subatomic particle, the neutron. James had also won Nobel Prize for discovery of nuetron. He had also discovered the energy of the protons emerging from the hydrogen atoms.
Glen T. Seaborg (1941-51)
Glen had synthesized 6 transuranium elements and suggested a change in the layout of the periodic table.In 1941, he isolated Uranium-233 and established thorium's nuclear fuel potentialand in 1951, Seaborg shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with E.M. McMillan for "for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements".