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Transcript of PREEZZI
What is it?
Osteoclast is a multinucleate (multiple nucleus) cell that nibbles and breaks down your bones, or for the resorption of the bone. Osteoclasts transport through the bloodstream to arrive at the bone resorption site. This is crucial for the process of remodeling a bone, where the bone formation and resorption are closeley paired with each other. The cell is mostly attracted to the bone's surface where the reduction of bone material is most needed. Osteoclasts are the only cell that is capable of resorbing mineralised bone and cartilage. These cells are rare, with only 2-3 cells seen per 1mm of the surface area of a bone. Very neat.
Osteoclasts are generallized as bone absorbing cells that play a vital role in bone homeostasis. Bone destruction is carried out by osteoclast activated by tumor cells, and the formation prevents bone destruction and even metastasis. Osteoclast is also indispensable for the formation of bone marrow, which enables the production of blood cells. Recent studies using the advancement in technology have discovered that osteoclast participates in the immune response and secretes cytokines that affects its own cell, as well as other cells affecting the bone. The absence of osteoclast causes harmful diseases such as osteoporosis, which results in extramedullary hematopoiesis.
Osteoclast. Digital image. What-when-how.com. The Crankshaft, n.d. Web. <http://what-when-how.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/tmp1739_thumb222.jpg>.
Osteoclast. Digital image. Cal.vet.upenn.edu. CAL, n.d. Web. <http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/saortho/chapter_01/01F4.jpg>.
Luca, Dragos, M.D. "Bone Marrow - Nonneoplastic - Osteoclasts." Bone Marrow - Nonneoplastic - Osteoclasts. PathologyOutlines.com, Inc., 4 Feb. 2014. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.pathologyoutlines.com/topic/bonemarrowosteoclasts.html>.
Osteoclast. Digital image. Commons.wikimedia.org. Wikimedia, n.d. Web. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Osteoclast.jpg>.
"DIfferentiation and Function of Osteoclasts." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12713016>.
"Osteoclasts: Structure and Function." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1873485>.
Osteoclasts, unfortunately, can cause common bone diseases if not properly in function. Most of these are rare geneticall diseases, but others, such as the Paget's disease, are complex diseases where genetical and environmental factors combine to form an abnormal osteoclast phenotype. There are two key situations where osteoclast may harm the bone: a.) the genetic defect gives rise to ineffective osteoclast, which leads to the result of the presence of too much bone, and b.) the osteoclast cells resorb too much bone where the osteoblast production of bone cannot keep up, resulting in a fragile, weak frame of bone, or osteoporosis. These human diseases highlight the critical importance of specific proteins or signalling pathways in osteoclasts.
The osteoclast cell has multiple features that are crucial for the resorption of bone material. For one, its surface adjacent to the bone has a straited, or brushed border. Upon numerous research, this border plays an important role in the resorption of underlying bone. These large, multinucleic cells contain a cytoplasm with most of the generic organelles: mitochondria, free ribosomes, vesicles, prominent Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes. Osteoclasts have three cellular organelles that are believed to be involved in resporation: mitochondria, lysosomes, and a ruffled or brushed border/membrane- because without breathing, it ain't workin'! Additionaly, lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicles which contain a wide spectrum of acid hydrolase enzymes, the fluid responsible for breaking down bown matricies.
Inside the Cell
Osteoclast in action