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Innovation and TRIZ
Dr. Patrick Mannellyon 27 March 2013
Transcript of Innovation and TRIZ
is doomed to decline and extinction." Jack Welsh, ex-CEO of most-admired company GE, once said that "An organization's ability to learn, and to translate that learning into action
rapidly, is the ultimate competitive business advantage." Tradeoffs—strength versus weight, reliability versus cost, service- quality versus resource and output versus input—are not the same as an inventive solution that creates new value. Inventive solutions emerge by exploiting useful effects and eliminating harmful effects. Here are some of the principles Altshuler descovered. Can you use them to come up with an innovative solution to save the people? Seen as the creator of new value, innovation isn't hit-or-miss, trial-and-error lateral thinking, but a repeatable process. What is innovative about innovation today is the realization that it can be achieved systematically, and that the innovator is an obsessive problem solver. Inventiveness has become a key factor influencing strategic planning. IT guru Kevin Kelly once said, "Wealth flows directly from innovation ... not optimization ... wealth is not gained by perfecting the known." Efficiency, while a necessary condition for business success, is insufficient to sustain growth over decades. While new levels of efficiency and productivity require inventive solutions, the goal of efficiency is not the same as the goal of innovation. If innovation and the balance sheet are inextricably linked, companies cannot afford to rely upon flashes of brilliance by individual inventors working alone. Hoping that what is cooking in the lab will turn up trumps is not a reasonable approach for a custodian of stockholder value. Very often, innovation results from the planned and deliberate recombination of ideas, people, and objects from the past that spark new technological revolutions, sought after service concepts and effective business models. To those business leaders who are sitting on the innovation fence, Y. L. Lennam has a dire prediction: "Out there in some garage is an entrepreneur who's forging a bullet with your company's name on it. You've got one option now— to shoot first. You've got to out-innovate the innovators. Companies seeking new wealth need to look toward intelligence, and intangibles; and of course, people. Innovation and competence are locked in an inseparable embrace. All significant innovations embody solutions to complex problems. While ideas sometimes take the form of a technical insight with no apparent commercial application, in most cases, a problem or opportunity inspires the insight. Innovators solve problems by focusing upon the useful parameters of a system that, if increased, would enhance it substantially, but also, the harmful aspects that, if left unchecked, would lead to a contradiction. Contradictions are significant, for if eradicated or reduced, directly or indirectly, they contribute to the development of a breakthrough solution. Avoiding compromize is central to innovation. Close examination of successful innovation projects reveals the power of cross-fertilization from diverse domains. A diverse team, using structured methods, with background and formal training covering materials science, computer-aided design, robotics, computer science, movie special efforts, molding, industrial interaction, graphics, fashion, the automobile business, finance, communications, linguistics, sociology, ergonomics, cognitive psychology, arts, therapy, ethnology, management consulting, statistics, medicine and zoology. The most effective idea management campaigns are those where a serious challenge is put to employees. All who innovate are required to eradicate obstacles and find approaches that move them closer to the ideal systems they seek to build. Problem solving lies at the heart of a new methodology for innovation that, at its core, is a study of contradiction. A contradiction exists in a system when, in attempting to improve one parameter of the system, another parameter you care about deteriorates. For example, if we attempt to make a product stronger by making it thicker, it also gets heavier. If we use better materials, the cost goes up, and so on. The subject can even be taught as a discipline, with the effect of increasing the overall
"inventiveness" of employees. TRIZ! He gradually became convinced that inventive problems could be classified, and solved
methodologically, just like other engineering problems. Once these principles had been discovered and codified, they could be applied to any problem situation, yielding many innovative (and often patentable) ideas. SO, Lets do an exercise and see if we can catch the essence of TRIZ...
Lets start small, and save all the people on the Titanic. The situation: Titanic Is there a reliable innovation algorithm that, simply by being applied, identifies contradictions and finds solutions by avoiding compromise? TRIZ is the brainchild of Russian scientist and engineer Genrich Altshuller. Born in 1926, he made his first invention at the age of fourteen and was later educated as a mechanical engineer. Patents represent the best definition we have of what constitutes "invention." If this knowledge can be tapped, great value can be unlocked. Patents necessarily contain a detailed description of a new solution to an old or new problem. According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the patent base covers 90 to 95 percent of worldwide research results; and further, making good use of the patents would reduce research time by 60 percent and research costs by 40 percent. Grounded in the patent base, but stripped of the technical subject matter, Altshuller found that the same abstract problem types appeared time and time again, together with corresponding generic solutions. After years of study he found that only a small number of engineering analogies and abstractions were necessary to explain the vast majority of inventions. He gradually became convinced that inventive problems could be classified, and solved
methodologically, just like other engineering problems. Once these principles had been discovered and codified, they could be applied to any problem situation, yielding many innovative (and often patentable) ideas. Modern versions of TRIZ are the result of decades of analysis, by hundreds of scientists and inventors, of millions of worldwide patents and related sources of knowledge, across all engineering disciplines. Hundreds of patterns of invention and technological evolution have been extracted and codified. This knowledge has been incorporated into procedures that guide innovators toward breakthrough solutions, direct the evolutionary path of development and help anticipate future limitations or roadblocks. ¡Hola! -You are 730 miles from the nearest land, You’ve just hit a big, hulking iceberg in 51 degree water.
-You are taking on water at an alarming rate from a 160’ long gash or plate separation below the water line mid ship.
-Your pumps can not keep up. There are no internal bulkheads to stem the flow.
-You have 1600 passengers and 400 crew aboard and life boats for 460.
-Your engines and generators are still turning…at least for now.
-Help is 5.5 hours away. They know of your predicament and are steaming hard your way.
-You’ve got an hour and 18 minutes until your ship sinks.
-Your assignment: Save everybody. The individual, team, organization or economic region that excels in developing innovative concepts and ideas about how to combine and re-combine the ingredients of business will be most successful. The recipe must be unique enough to capture the attention of oversupplied and demanding customers, a recipe that adds real value and a recipe that is extremely difficult to copy. The typical engineering approach to dealing with such contradictions is to trade-off, in other words, to compromise." Intrigued by the question of how an innovation happens. Was it a mysterious, capricious and random event, highly dependent on the individual in whom it occurs—a matter of luck bounded by the personal experience of the inventor—or could innovation be understood as the result of systematic patterns in the evolution of systems? TRIZ looks across the patent base as a whole to uncover abstract principles, the lack of commercial value in any single patent does not limit the value of TRIZ. TRIZ has been around since the late 1940s, but the computer revolution has made the method practical, taking the grunt work out of exploring numerous trees of alternatives solutions. 1. Segmentation A. Divide an object into independent parts.
B. Make an object easy to assemble or disassemble
C. Increase the degree of fragmentation of segmentation 1. Segmentation A. Divide an object into independent parts.
B. Make an object easy to assemble or disassemble.
C. Increase the degree of fragmentation of segmentation. 2. Extraction/Taking Out/Removal Separate an interfering part or property from an object, or single out the necessary parts/properties of an object. 3. Local Quality A. Change structure from uniform to non-uniform.
B. Change the external environment/external influences from uniform to non-uniform.
C. Make each part function in conditions more suitable for its operations.
D. Make each part fulfill a different and/or complementary useful function. 4. Asymmetry A. Change the shape or properties of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical.
B. Change the shape of something to suite external asymmetries (e.g. ergonomic features)
C. Make an asymmetrical feature more asymmetrical. 5. Combining/Merging A. Bring objects closer together or merge operations in time and/or space.
B. Make objects or processes contiguous or parallel, bring them together in time. 6. Universality A. Make a part or process perform multiple functions, eliminate the need for other parts.
B. Use standardized features. 7. Nesting A. Place one object inside another.
B. Place multiple objects inside others.
C. Make one part pass dynamically through a cavity in the other. 8. Counter weighting/Anti-weighting A. Merge it with something that provides lift.
B. Make it interact with the environment using aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, buoyancy and other forces. 9. Prior Counter-action A. If necessary to perform an action with both harmful and useful effects, replace the action with anti-actions to control harmful effects. E.g. dust removal from power tools.
B Create beforehand actions in an object that will oppose known undesirable working stresses later on. E.g. pre-stress concrete before pouring concrete. 10. Prior Action/Preliminary action A. Make required changes to an object before it is needed. E.g. pre-fabed window units.
B. Pre-arrange objects so they can come into action from the most convenient place without losing time for their delivery. 11. Cushion in advance Prepare emergency means beforehand to compensate for the relatively low reliability of an object. 12. Equipotentiality/Remove Tension Use counterbalances, platforms, ramps to limit effects of position changes 13. Inversion/”The other way around” A. Instead of heating an object, cool what’s around it.
B. Make movable parts fixed, fixed parts movable.
C. Turn the object upside down 14. Spheriodality/Curvature A. Instead of rectilinear parts, surfaces or forms use curvilinear ones, move from flat surfaces to spherical ones, from cubes or ball shaped structures. (or vice versa).
B. Use rollers, falls, spirals and domes.
C. Go from linear to rotary motion (or vice versa).
D. Use centrifugal forces 15. Dynamicity 16. Partial or Overdone Action 17. Moving in a New Dimension Move an event into two or three dimensions.
Use a multi-story arrangement of event s instead of a single-story.
Tilt or re-orient the event, lay it on its side.
Use another side of a given event. 18. Mechanical Vibration Cause an event to oscillate or vibrate.
Increase the frequency of change.
Find and use the events resonant frequency.
Use piezoelectric vibrators instead of mechanical ones.
Use combined ultrasonic and electromagnetic field oscillations 19. Periodic Action Instead of continuous action, use periodic or pulsating actions.
If an action already is periodic, change its frequency or magnitude.
Use pauses between actions to perform different actions 20. Continuity of a Useful Action Carry on work continuously, full load.
Eliminate all idle time, intermittent actions and slower pace 21. Rushing Through/Skipping Conduct processes or stages at high speeds 22. Convert Harm into Benefit/Blessing in Disguise
Lemons into Lemonade Use harmful factors (particularly harmful effects of the environment ) to achieve a positive effect.
Eliminate the harmful effect by adding it to another harmful effect to resolve the problem.
Amplify the harmful effect to such a degree that it is no longer harmful 23. Feedback Introduce feedback (cross checking) to improve communication and improve a process or action.
Change the magnitude or influence of existing feedback 24. Mediator/Intermediary Use an intermediary carrier article or process (e.g. a place for a witness to call, a union rep talk with management.)
Merge one event temporarily with another 25. Self-Service Make an event serve itself by performing auxiliary helpful functions (e.g. gasoline pumps accept credit cards)
Use waste resources, energy, cheaper substances 26. Copying Instead of unavailable, expensive, or fragile event, use simpler and inexpensive copies.
Replace an event or process with optical copies (e.g. team meeting via video conference ) 27. Inexpensive, Short Lived Object for Expensive, Durable one Replace a single expensive event with inexpensive event, compromising certain qualities (such as service life.) 28. Replacement of a Mechanical System Replace a mechanical means with a sensory (optical, acoustic, taste or smell) means 29. Pneumatic or Hydraulic Constriction Use air or water to solve the problem. 30. Flexible Membrane or Thin Film 31. Use of Porous Material 32. Changing the Color 33. Homogeneity 34. Rejecting and Regenerating Parts 35. Transformation of the physical and chemical states of an object 36. Phase Transformation 37. Thermal Expansion 38. Use Strong Oxidizers 39. Inert Environment 40. Composite Materials 41. Simplify by folding or merging sub-systems 42. Replaced manual intervention by automatic adjustment Use the 40 TRIZ Inventive Principles to develop solutions by analogical brainstorming -Divide yourselves into groups of 2 or 3.
-Take 6 or 7 of the principles and use traditional brainstorming rules to develop ways to save the passengers and crew based on the principles you have chosen.
-You have 30 minutes to work. Make sure your solutions can be implemented in the 2 hours and 18 minutes you have before the ship sinks!
-Start now! Hurry, the ship is sinking! Notice that most of Altshuler’s Inventive Principles are taken from examples in nature. Ideal final result= Everyone Saved!