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Occupied buildings - Performance assessment & the raise of sensor technologies: Why? How? and...The benefits?
Transcript of Occupied buildings - Performance assessment & the raise of sensor technologies: Why? How? and...The benefits?
Why? How? and...The benefits? What everyone wants:
Low carbon buildings- more, quicker, and with a low defect rate, whilst reducing costs Deployments experiences – beyond pilots Inferring meaning from data Remarks Apportioning consumption (thus making judgments) to fabric, systems and behaviour/lifestyle/preferences needs accurate well specified measurement.
Environmental Data can be obtained, Knowledge is hard to be inferred.
Pioneers stand to gain – insight - early understanding – market leadership. Elena Gaura &
Ross Wilkins “What can be measured can be evaluated, improved, directed – in short managed.”
(Lord Kelvin) Not everything that can be counted counts, not everything that counts can be counted.”
(Albert Einstein) Period: mostly heating period with some summer samples.
Environmental quality monitoring and energy auditing.
Deployment duration- variable (24 months).
20 million+ data points; yield 95%. 50+ Social/owned/privately rented
Victorian to PassivHaus; bungalows, terraced, detached, apartments.
Heating systems: ground source, air source, gas central, mixed, district heating schemes.
Occupants: age groups – from 1 to 70; family sizes – from 2 to 7. Passiv Homes or Passiv Living? Inferring meaning from data - system diagnosis Towards... The tools - Wireless networked sensors Buildings assessment: SUSTAINS and DECENT HOMES Cogent's Perspective on Buildings and Carbon Cuts: the facts and the standpoints • The facts:
– Specified and Occupied: the performance gap is a reality - causes are anecdotal though...
– Buildings don't consume energy, people do! and...
– People are different - we all wear different carbon shoes (mostly by choice but sometimes by force...)
– Believing in “green” doesn't make us “green”
– New technologies don't always do what is said on the tin • The Standpoints:
– You can not cut what you have not measured (and understood...)
– Homes are a complex systems problem: fabric, systems, people and multiple interactions
– Data is power ... IF it has statistical validity
– The sensing technology is here - USE IT Assessment & evaluation Cheap
Easy to use
Flexible, evolving Portable
Drop and go
Knowledge generators Occupied Buildings:
Simple DATA vs Complex KNOWLEDGE Space Challenges
unclear informational needs
lack of holistic metrics
complex phenomena: energy, building fabric, heating/cooling systems and PEOPLE
unattended operation/limited access post deployment
long-lived robust systems
large scale networks (over 200 nodes)
mix of wireless protocols
evolving needs for additional sensing modalities
dealing with the client - knowledge transfer and requirements negotiation
designing with patterns
transmission suppression - SIP
knowledge driven design - BN
failure monitoring tools (Heartbeat)
occupant-focused sustainability assessment methods - MAKE
holistic metrics for building fabric performance assessment (heating/cooling curves; time exposure)
end-user archiving and analysis tools The holy grail – quantifying dependencies Carbon footprint reduction is not about BUILDINGS, but OCCUPIED BUILDINGS comfort house efficiency fuel poverty health lifestyle building
behavior Thank you ! Any questions? Reasoning about energy and environment Using More Energy
Higher level of comfort Using Less Energy
Lower level of comfort Understanding homes in terms of quantified information Identical House – Always Occupied
Lower Energy Used, Lower Comfort Identical House – Always Occupied
More energy Used, Higher Comfort Getting the right data – Where, what and how long for? Using the data right Open research question: Defining Holistic approaches to assessment Integrative of sub-systems interactions: climate, fabric, mechanical systems and PEOPLE - new science, tools and data are key.
Understand interactions, effects, drivers, attitudes.
Build and roll out appropriate instrumentation – heavily constrained by application (privacy, ethics, opportunity, cost, utility, portability, long shelf life, robustness, re-use, end-user adoption).
Build large data banks - archetypes (buildings, systems and people).
Develop new informational metrics (assessment and diagnosis, comparative assessment).
Develop solution sets – generate knowledge from information (education, measures costs efficiency, contextualized strategies).
Roll out solutions and loop and refine. Opportunity, tools and data Opportunity:
Large stock owners, community driven associations.
Strong WSN devices market; mostly DIY, research instruments; expensive services for data collection and return.
Need for detailed instrumentation systems specification, integrative of drivers for energy consumption in residential buildings.
Shift from “observational” approaches to fully fledged statistical approaches based on new metrics. Privacy: My home is my castle Habits Living choices Duty of care Inferring meaning from data - the building envelope Inferring meaning from data- Decent Home/ Decent Living? Inferring Knowledge from Information – cost of comfort Choices Diagnosis Focused action Education Results
productised end-to-end monitoring system
250 node on-site network (23 co-located homes) for over 15 months
63.1% yield - 22.5% loss from occupant intervention, 11.3% loss from vandalism, 2.7% loss from maintenance issues. Only 0.4% loss due to network or sensor issues.
Industry - adoption and change of current practice How do people live? 21.75 kWh/day 7.23 kWh/day Date Date kWh kWh Time Time