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Transcript of Applied Psychology
Ask the client what will be the pleasure of not taking action and what will be the pain of not taking action? The decision balance sheet is a technique used to
help the individual to weigh up the gains and losses
of going through a period of change in behaviour.
They may wish to adopt a new behaviour and move
away from old habits. It works very well in the exercise
environment to help convince an individual of the
need to start taking exercise. The technique works in
the following way: Decision Balance Sheet Make the picture very colourful and bright.
●●Make the picture highly focused.
●●Run the picture through as a film rather than a
●● Feel the feelings associated with achieving the
●● Focus on the picture and how good it feels to have
achieved your goal.
●●As you breathe deeply, lock in the pictures and
●●Practise this regularly to increase its worth and
make it really compelling. Additional Techniques and Factors
If we can imagine ourselves when we have achieved our goal or are achieving our goal, it can increase the
power of the goal and really implant the image on our nervous system.
To use imagery, you need to do the following:
●● Sit down and close your eyes.
●●Bring up a picture of yourself when you have
achieved your goal.
●●Make this picture really big – as big as a cinema
Additional Techniques and Factors
Use imagery It will include factors such as lack of motivation, the effects of stress and anxiety, past experiences and memories, lack of -
self-esteem or confidence, limiting self-beliefs, poor concentration and negative attitude. This can be seen as the unconscious ways the brain will sabotage our efforts to become the best we can possibly be. Psychological Interference When working with athlete’s, it is important to start at the performance equation
Performance = Potential 2 Psychological Interference
Performance is what actually happened. It is the outcome or result.
Potential is as good as a person can possibly
be and is the sum of an individual’s ability, skills, knowledge and education.
Psychological interference is the mental processes that prevent an individual achieving their full potential at any point in time. Write in your goal at point 5 and your present
position at point 1.
●●Decide what would be halfway between points 1
and 5. This is your goal for point 3.
●●Then decide what would be halfway between
present state and point 3. This is your short-term
goal for point 2.
●●Then decide what would be halfway between point
3 and the desired state. This is the goal for point 4.
●●All these goals are outcome goals and must be set
using the SMART principle.
●●Work out what needs to be done to move from
point 1 to point 2. These are your process goals
and, again, must use the SMART principle. Everything in life has a cost, and within reason you can have what you like as long as you are willing to pay the price.
The cost can be financial or personal, as it may affect how much time or money you have. It may affect the relationships you have, and there will be losses as well as gains.
Be realistic and ask yourself: ‘Is the cost worth it?’ or ‘What are the wider implications of gaining this goal?’ Every action will have consequences you intend and some that you did not intend, and you need to try to foresee these. Cost of achieving your goal Write what your goal is at point 5.
Write your situation now at point 1.
Decide what would be halfway between points 1 and 5. Put this your goal at point 3.
Then decide what would be halfway between present state and point 3. This is your short-term goal for point 2.
Then decide what would be halfway between point 3 and the desired state. This is the goal for point 4.
All these goals are outcome goals and must be set using the SMART principle.
Work out what needs to be done to move from point 1 to point 2. These are your process goals and, again, must use the SMART principle. Present state Desired state
1 2 3 4 5 Presentation of Goals Answer three questions:
What do I want to achieve? (desired state)
Where am I now? (present state)
What do I need to do to move from my present state to my desired state? How to set goals Specific
Time constrained Principles of goal setting Short-term goals are set over a brief period of time, usually from one day to one month. A short-term goal may relate to what you want to achieve in one training session or where you want to be by the end of the month.
Medium-term goals will bridge the gap between short- and long-term goals and are set from one to three months.
Long-term goals will run from three months to over several years. You may even set some lifetime goals, which run until you retire from your sport. In sport, we may set long-term goals to cover a season or a sporting year. Time scale for goals Types of goal:
Outcome goals relate to the outcome of an event.
Process goals look at the process an athlete must go through to achieve the desired level of performance.
Performance goals look at achieving a certain standard of performance without comparison with other individuals. Goal Setting Goal Setting Techniques to influence motivation in sport Will get fatter Will fit into my clothes Have more energy Be Stronger Be Fitter Feel Slim Getting up early Loss of time Less Money Physically uncomfortable Pleasure Pain Pleasure Pain Not Take Action Take Action Decision The Decision Balance Sheet Process goals
1. Run three times a week
2. Run 20 k in total
3. Join a running club
4. Have a nutritional consultation
5. Get 8 hours sleep a night
Fig 20.3 Example of goal setting using a continuum April 2001
Able to complete
a marathon February 2001
Able to run
20 miles November 2000
Able to run
half marathon August 2000
Able to run
10K May 2000
Able to run
State 5 4 3 2 1 Today's task Get into teams and complete the dart's goal setting activity