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Greek values in Homer's Iliad

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Amy Antoninka

on 25 September 2015

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Transcript of Greek values in Homer's Iliad

Achilles kills Hector
Achilles and Patroclus
Thetis gives Achilles armor
"...-I have sat here
idly, a useless burden upon the earth . . .
If only strife could vanish from gods and mortals,
and anger, which makes even sensible me flare up
and get caught in violent quarrels and which, far sweeter
than trickling honey, expands in the breast like smoke..."
18.89-94
Achilles attaches Hector's body to his chariot
Fighting over Patroclus's body
Hector defiled by Achilles
Homer and Greek Values
(700-800BCE)
Why is Homer Important?
What did you get out of the text?
What do you think Homer and his culture value?
Homeric virtues:
Birth
Wealth
Strength
Piety
Hospitality
Word and deed
What makes a hero heroic?
Who are the heroes of
The Iliad
?
Groups: Discuss the question your group is given, and be prepared to share your findings with the class. Please use specific references from the text in your response.

1. Compare Achilles and Agamemnon.
What "excellences" do they possess?
Who would be considered more virtuous according to Homer?
Who is more pious? Why?

2. Look at the prayers in the Iliad (Chryses's 1.33-59, Agamemnon's 2.388-404, Achilles's 1.348-368, and Hector's 6.474-481).
What do these prayers say about the relation of humans to the gods?
What do they say about the relation of the gods to humans?

3. Look at 4.1-135.
How would you characterize the gods?
How do the gods relate to one another?
How might this understanding of the gods influence Greek values?
Groups: In your group discuss the argument given to your group.
What kinds of arguments are being used (logical, emotional, based on values, etc)
Is the argument persuasive? Why or why not?

Group 1: Look at Odyseus's speech to Achilles (9.20-304)

Group 2: Look at Phoenix's speech to Achilles (9.433-518).

Group 3: Look at Achilles's response (9.305-428)


Strength
Skill
Courage
Zeus
+
Hera
Athena
Apollo
(Hates Trojans because of Paris)
(Loves Achilles, hates Trojans)
(Loves Trojans, hates Agamemnon)
Aphrodite
Hepheastus
+
(Loves Paris)
King of the gods
Queen of the gods
Poseidon
King of the sea
Thetis
Peleus
+
King of Phythia
Achilles
Zeus , Hera and Family
The Acheans
Agamemnon
Odysseus
Brothers
+
Menelaus
Helen
Queen of Sparta
(King of Sparta, if married to Helen)
King of Kings
Nestor
the 2 Ajaxes
Phoenix
Calchas
Diomedes
Menstheus
Idomeneus
Patroclus
The Gods
The Trojans
Priam + Hecuba
Paris + Helen
Aeneas
(Loved by Apollo)
(Loved by Aphrodite)
King of Troy
Queen of Troy
Pisander
Killed by Hector
best friends/lovers
Lycaon
Killed by Achilles
Killed by Achilles
Hector + Andromache
Killed by Achilles
controls possession of Sparta
Mestor
Killed by Achilles
Dryops
Killed by Achilles
Hippodomas
Killed by Achilles
Hyperion
Killed by Achilles
Founds Rome
King of Ithaca
Close family friend of Achilles
(Killed by his wife Clytemnestra)
King of Mycenae
Killed by Paris
Sea goddess
Goddess of wisdom, weaving, mathematics, justice, and courage
God of light/sun, healing, music and poetry
Craftsmen to the gods
Goddess of love, seduction, beauty
+
Clytemnestra
Other major Achaean characters
Chief adviser to Agamemnon
How does one attain these?
What can one do to attain these?
How are these developed?
Thetis appealing to Zeus on Achilles's behalf
Apollo protects Hector
Athena prevent Achilles from slaying Agamemnon
Aphrodite brings gifts to Paris
Hera tricks Zeus so Athena can help the Achaeans
Gods and mortals
Arete= excellence, virtue, performs function excellently
HONOR = thought of well, material goods, rules over others
Glory = eternal fame, the only immortality a mortal can attain
Why does Achilles return to the war?
Sisters
Things are going badly for the Achaean's
Agamemnon offers lots of prizes to get Achilles to come back to the war
Patroclus begs to go to war because he feels for the Achaean's
Patroclus doesn't heed Achilles's advice
Patroclus is killed (lastly) by Hector
A brief overview of the action between Bks 8-24
Does this cure Achilles's rage?
Does this cure Achilles's rage?
Group 1
Look at the meeting between Priam and Achilles (24.466-670) from the perspective of Priam. What does this meeting say about Priam's character? Use examples to defend your account.

Group 2
Look at the meeting between Priam and Achilles (24.466-670) from the perspective of Achilles. What this meeting say about Achilles's character? Use examples to defend your account.

Group 3
The Iliad begins with the theme of the rage of Achilles. Discuss what the overall moral of The Iliad might be, considering the meeting and agreement of Achilles and Priam (24.466-670).
Rage
9.108-113

9.629-640
16.24-37
18.82-112
20.388-399
Does this cure Achilles's rage?
Does this cure Achilles's rage?
Achilles slits the throats of 12 Trojans
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