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Odyssey Book by Book

Guide for LA 9 Odyssey Unit
by

Karin Kayser

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of Odyssey Book by Book

The Odyssey by Homer
Book by Book

Book 1
Book 6
"The Princess and the Stranger"

Epic Poetry Intro Main Points:
*Classical Antiquity
*Invocation of the Muse
*In medias res
*Epithets

Plot Points
Telemachus calls a town meeting--unusual because it has been so long since this happened (since Odysseus left :(
Telemachus argues that the suitors need to leave
Antinuous, lead suitor, blames Penelope for their actions
Penelope has been tricking the suitors--saying she would marry one when done weaving a funeral shroud for her father-in-law, Laertes
secretly, at night, Penelope has been unweaving!
Telemachus prepares to set sail--clandestinely
Big Ideas
*Telemachus' Journey to Manhood
*Retelling the war stories
*Telemachus' departure
*Athena's guidance
Book 2
Main Points
*Telemachus meets Menelaus and Helen
*Hospitality--Xenia--modeled
*Heroes and their fates
*Who is Helen? Conflicting stories
*Proteus Myth
Book 4
Main Points
*Odysseus emerges at last!
*Destiny: "So his destiny ordains (5.45)
*Odysseus cries A LOT!
*Odysseus misses Penelope but ...
***Calypso
*Double standard for the sexes
*Odysseus departs--almost dies--is saved by a woman!!! (Ino, "Cadmus' daughter with lovely ankles" (5.366)
*Odysseus sees land--pure happiness--EPIC SIMILE!
*Odysseus begs the gods and reaches land--EPIC SIMILE!
Book 5
"Odysseus--Nymph and Shipwreck"
Book 3
"King Nestor Remembers"
Main Points
*Telemachus meets Nestor, home from the Trojan War
*Nestor recalls the heroes and tells Agamemnon's story
*Nestor sends Telemachus to visit Menelaus at Sparta
*Great hospitality--xenia--shown
*Telemachus hears he resembles his father, Odysseus
What is an epic poem?
What defines an epic hero?
calls forth the muse--daughter of Zeus and goddess of the arts--to bless the poem
the poem needs to be blessed because it will be a story of the values and morals of society--so everyone had best be quiet and listen! THIS IS IMPORTANT!!!
"The King and Queen of Sparta"
"Athena Inspires the Prince"
"Telemachus Sets Sail"
Helen of Troy
*Wife of Menelaus
*Wife of Paris
*"Shameless Whore"?
*Seductress?
*Model Greek Woman?
Book 4 Discussion Questions
Close Reading
*lines:
*134-62
*243-96
*297-324
*a long poem (12,000 plus lines in The Odyssey!)
*a poem telling the story of an epic hero and his journey
*a poem about the values and beliefs of a culture/society
*an attractive man
*a good warrior
*has extra-ordinary powers
*god-like qualities
*on a journey
*flawed in some way
Time Period of:
Ancient Greece and Rome
from Homer to the Fall of Rome
8th c BCE - 6th c AD
in the middle of things
*how epic poems begin
*draws listener in
*immediately grabs attention
*allows for flash back
An epithet is
* a characterizing word or phrase describing a character
Used to:
*fit the poem's meter
*help the bard and listener
*provide imagery
*give more information:
***rank
***homeland
***parentage/children
***accomplishments
***physical qualities
What is an epic simile?
A long, drawn out comparison using like or as--or SO
EPIC because:
*several lines
*Uses comparisons the Greek audience would know so they can relate to the event
*incorporates imagery for the listener
Book 5 Epic Similes
*5.435-42
*5.540-7
"they lost themselves in love" (5.251).
Theme Topics Check In
Books 1-5
*xenia (guest-host relationship/hospitality)
*masculinity
*the role of women
*the power of the gods
*fate vs. free will
*destiny
*war
*power
"Calypso" by Suzanne Vega
Main Points
*Odysseus lays in disguise on the shores of Phaeacia
*King Alcinous
*Princess Nausicaa
*sea-faring people
*Athena summons Nausicaa
*xenia shown
*Odysseus cleans up
*Nausicaa tells Odysseus what to do
*Approach the Queen first and plead to her
*Athena watches and helps
*Odysseus prays that, "I may find some mercy and some love" (6.360)!
*Poseidon rages on!
"What are they here--violent, savage, lawless? or friendly to strangers, god-fearing men" (6.132-3)?
Epic Similes
*6.112-20
*6.142-52
*6.256-60
Themes

*xenia
*civilization
*the polis
*the gods
*sex roles
The ancient Greek city-states
*form of government
*set code of conduct
*following laws
*respecting the government
Books 7 & 8 Summaries
Book 7
Book 8
Athena, in the guise of a young girl, meets Odysseus and guides him to the palace, having enveloped him in mist so that he might not be seen. The magnificent palace and its lovely garden impress Odysseus. He enters and supplicates Arete, the queen. Well received, he dines among the nobles of Phaeacia. In the evening, Odysseus describes to the king and queen how he came to Phaeacia, and Alcinous promises to speed his journey home.
from: http://www.online-literature.com/homer/odyssey/31/
The next morning Alcinous summons a assembly to offer a ship to Odysseus and then invites the lords into his palace to hear Demodocus, the blind bard, sing a tale of Odysseus at Troy. Alcinous observes that the song draws tears from Odysseus, and he calls for a contest of games. Odysseus responds to a challenge from the proud Euryalus by hurling a discuss farther than all, and he issues a general challenge; all are astonished at his valor. Again in the palace, Demodocus sings of the infidelity of Aphrodite, goddess of love, with Ares the war-god, and how her husband Hephaestus, god of crafts, caught them in an invincible net. After marvelous dancing and the presentation of gifts to Odysseus, Demodocus recites the exploits of Odysseus and the wooden horse. Again Odysseus weeps, and Alcinous asks him his story.
from: http://www.online-literature.com/homer/odyssey/32/
http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/odyssey/section4.rhtml
Book 9
In the One-Eyed Giant's Cave
Main Points
*Odysseus tells his story
Cicones--sack and plunder a bit too much!
*Lotus-eaters--thwarting the nostos
*Cyclops island
*"lawless brutes"
*no polis
*Odysseus checks out the cyclops
*Crew eats and drinks without asking--violation of xenia
*Polyphemus returns and eats some of them!--violation of xenia
*Odysseus tells Polyphemus his name is "Nobody"
*Odysseus gets Polyphemus drunk and stabs him in the eye with a burning stick
*Odysseus and his men sneak out under the sheep
*Odysseus taunts Polyphemus by telling him who he is and where he lives
*Polyphemus cries out to his father, Poseidon
Theme Topics
*Home/Family
*Nostos (journey home)
*Polis (government)
*Xenia (guest/host code)
*Greed
Epic
Similes

stabbing with the olive stake
*9.429-35
the eye ball bursting
*9.437-41
"So nothing is as sweet as a man's own country, his own parents, even though he's settled down in some luxurious house, off in a foreign land and far from those who bore him" (9. 38-41).
"Any crewmen who ate the lotus, the honey-sweet fruit, lost all desire to send a message back, much less return, their only wish to linger there with the Lotus-eaters, grazing on lotus, all memory of the journey home dissolved forever" (9.106-10).
"What are they--violent, savage, lawless? or friendly to strangers, god-fearing men" (9. 195-6)?
"There we built a fire, set our hands on the cheeses, offered some to the gods and ate the bulk ourselves and settled down inside, awaiting his return" (9.260-2).
"Then I urged them to cut and run, set sail, but would they listen? Not those mutinous fools; there was too much wine to swill, too many sheep to slaughter down along the beach, and the shambling longhorn cattle" (9.50-3).
Good vs bad
Polyphemus--not all bad
*gentle with his sheep
*calls to neighbors for help
9.491-511
Book 10
"The Bewitching Queen of Aeaea"
Main Points

*Odysseus continues telling his story to the Phaeacians
*First stop; Aeolus, master of the wind's island
*xenia shown
*gift of a bag of wind
*crew not told about the bag
*with homeland in sight crew rebels and opens wind!
*Laestrygonian's next
*uncivilized, bad hosts--they eat some of the crew!
*Circe, nymph with lovely braids on Aeaea
*feeds the men then turns them into pigs!
*Odysseus senses the trap
*Hermes comes to give Odysseus an antidote
*Odysseus must sleep with Circe but get her swear she'll protect you
*Odysseus does as told and stays with Circe for a whole year!
*His comrades finally tell him it's time to go home
*Circe tells Odysseus he must first travel to Hades and consult with Tiresias, the great blind prophet
*Circe goes into detail about what Odysseus must do
*Elpenor, one of the crew gets drunk, goes to sleep on the roof, falls off and dies
*Odysseus and crew depart for Hades
Themes
*Nostos
*Greed
*Xenia
*Sex Roles
*The Gods
*Fate vs Free Will
Important Quotations

*"But his plan was bound to fail, yes, our own reckless folly swept us on to ruin" (10.30-1).

*"So I sent some crew ahead to learn who lived there--men like us perhaps, who live on bread" (10.110-1)?

*"What good can come of grief" (10.221)?

*"But I stayed behind--I sensed a trap" (10.284).

*"'You have a mind in you no magic can enchant! You must be Odysseus, man of twists and turns...Come, sheathe your sword, let's go to bed together, mount my bed and mix in the magic work of love--we'll breed deep trust between us'" (10.265-72).

*"'High time you thought of your own home at last, if it really is your fate to make it back alive and reach your well-build house and native land'" (10.521-3).

*"My heart longs to be home, my comrades' hearts as well (10.533-4).
Epic Similes
*How the bewitched mountain wolves and lions entered Circe's palace (10.233-40)
*How the loyal crew is weeping (10.450-61)
*"What good can come of grief" (10.626)?
Circe Images
Book 11
"The Kingdom of the Dead"
Main Points
*Odysseus and crew travel to Hades
*They follow Circe's instructions
*dig a trench, pour libations to the dead, vow to the dead to honor them in Ithaca
*The dead come out of Erebus starting with Elpenor's ghost who begs for a proper burial
*Next comes Odysseus' mother, Anticleia, who died while Odysseus was away
*Next is Tiresias, the Theban prophet who drinks the blood and speaks
*Tells Odysseus he must use his power to curb his crew's "wild desire" and his own AND they can't eat the cattle of the sun OR Odysseus whill come home alone, a "broken man"
*Tells Odysseus he must make a sacrifice to Poseidon upon his return to Ithaca
*Tells Odysseus he will die a gentle death in his old age
*Tells Odysseus how to get the ghosts to speak the truth to him
*Odysseus talks to his mother--she died of grief over him.
*She tells him Penelope is still waiting, his father is alive but hiding on his farm in anguish, and Telemachus is all grown up!
*Procession of women occurs next--all stories of famous Greek women and their stories (including Helen's mother, Leda)
*Dramatic Pause next--reminder Odysseus is telling this story to the Phaeacians!
*Alcinous asks about the Greek heroes
*Back to Hades:
*Agamemnon died an "ignominious" death, killed dishonorably by his wife and lover and hates all women--never trust them!
*Achilles wishes he had not gone for glory--he'd rather be alive as a nobody than dead as a hero
*Ajax refuses to speak to Odysseus
*Tantalus
*Sisyphus
*Heracles
*Odysseus yearns to hear more stories but rushes out to get back to earth in fear of being trapped in Hades.
Themes
*Fate vs Free Will
*Death
*Heroism
*Gender/Sex Roles
*Family/Home
Book 12
"The Cattle of the Sun"
Main Points
*Back to Circe's island to give Elpenor a proper burial
*Circe tells Odysseus what he will encounter next and what he should do:
*The Sirens--creatures who spellbind men with their song and then kill them. Odysseus must lash himself to the mast and listen without getting free.
*Next Odysseus must choose his route:
**The Clashing Rocks--they'll crush you (Only Jason and the Argonauts have survived them!)
**Scylla--grisly six-headed monster who eats men
**Charybdis--giant whirlpool sucks boats into its depths
**Thrinacia, the island of the Sungod, Helios, and his sacred cattle--which, if harmed will result in destruction for the crew.
*Odysseus departs and warns his crew about the Sirens
*Crew plugs their ears, tie Odysseus to the mast, and they make it by!
*Odysseus does not warn his crew about Scylla and Charybdis, and the monster Scylla eats six of them.
* They land on Helios and Odysseus warns them not to touch the sacred cattle, but they all begin starving.
*Odysseus takes a hike to pray to the gods and is put to sleep.
*While gone, Eurylochus convinces the crew to slaughter the cattle--better to die on the ship than by hunger on the island.
*Odysseus wakes up but the damage is done, and the crew continues eating the cattle.
*They begin their journey again and all the crew are killed.
*Odysseus, now alone, makes it past Charybdis, whew, and lands on Ogygia, Calypso's island!
*Odysseus' story to the Phaeacians thus ends!
Epic Simile
*How Scylla kills the men to fish dying (12.270-9)
"Just as an angler poised on a jutting rock flings his treacherous bait in the offshore swell, whips his long rod--hook sheathed in an oxhorn lure--and whisks up little fish he flips on the beach-break, writihing, gasping out their lives...so now they writhed, gasping as Scylla swung them up on her cliff and there at her cavern's mouth she bolted them down raw--screaming out, flinging their arms toward me, lost in that mortal struggle (12.271-9)
Themes
*Xenia
*Fate vs. Free Will
*Self-control
*Resisting Temptation
*Leadership/Heroism
*Death
*The Gods
The Sirens
The Sirens
Scylla and Charybdis
Scylla, Sea Monster
Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince
*Scene in the cave, "Inferni in the Firestorm" with Dumbledore
*How I imagine the underworld in Book 11
Book 13
"Ithaca at Last"
Main Points
*Odysseus' tale ends.
*The Phaeacians celebrate with a royal feast, gifts galore, and promises of delivering Odysseus safely home.
*Odysseus thanks them, bids farewell, and prays to the gods.
*Odysseus leaves and falls asleep on the boat--big surprise!
*Meanwhile...Poseidon is angry that the Phaeacians have helped Odysseus and must save face...
*Zeus agrees that Poseidon may punish the Phaeacians by crushing the return boat, turning it to stone, and piling a mountain about their port
*Irony: Zeus is the protector of xenia but allows Poseidon to punish people who are the epitome of xenia!
*Odysseus meanwhile wakes up on Ithaca, Athena disguises him as well as Ithaca, and Odysseus whines again!
*Odysseus inspects his treasure, cries, and sees a young shepherd boy, aka Athena,
*Athena tells Odysseus he has reached Ithaca, they talk, and she turns into her true self.
*Athena tells Odysseus he must test his wife and gives a sign to prove she is a goddess
*Athena transforms Odysseus into a beggar and tells him to find his swineherd, Eumeus.
*Athena takes off to bring Telemachus home.
Epic Simile
*13.34-40
Key Quotations
*"May I find an unswerving wife when I reach home, and loved ones hale, unharmed (13.48-9)!
*"one who had suffered twenty years of torment, sick at heart, cleaving his way through wars of men and pounding men at sea but now he slept in peace, the memory of his struggles laid to rest" (13.101-5).
*"'Zeus, Father, I will lose all my honor now among the immortals, now there are mortal men who show me no respect--Phaeacians, too, born of my own loins'" (13.145-8)!
*"'Man of misery, whose land have I lit on now? What are they here--violent, savage, lawless? or friendly to strangers, god-fearing men'" (13.227-9)?
*"'It's a rugged land, too cramped for driving horses, but though it's far from broad, it's hardly poor. There's plenty of grain for bread, grapes for wine, the rains never fail and the dewfall's healthy. Good country for goats, good for cattle too--there's stand on stand of timber and water runs in streambeds through the year '" (13.275-81).
*'"Any man--any god who met you--would have to be some champion lying cheat to get past you for all-around craft and guile! You terrible man, foxy, ingenious, never tired of twists and tricks--so, not even here, on native soil, would you give up those wily tales that warm the cockles of your heart'" (13.329-34)!
*'"you must put your wife to the proof yourself! But she, she waits in your halls, as always, her life an endless hardship ... wasting away the nights, weeping away the days'" (13.382-5).
*"'Clearly I might have died the same ignoble death as Agamemnon, bled white in my own house too, if you had never revealed this to me now, goddess, point by point. Come, weave us a scheme so I can pay them back'" (13.438-42)!
Themes
*Xenia
*Power of the Gods
*Family
*Nostos
*Loyalty
Odissea 1968 Film
Book 14 & 15 Summaries
Book 14 & 15 Summaries
Book 16
"Father and Son"
Main Points
*Eumaeus, the loyal swineherd, greets Telemachus as a father would greet a long-lost son
*Telemachus unknowningly meets his father and treats him with lots and lots of xenia
*Telemachus tries to protect the stranger
*fearful he will be harmed by the suitors
*Odysseus refers to Telemachus as a "fine young prince" (16.105)
*Telemachus sends Eumeus to tell Penelope her son is home.
*Athena visits Odysseus and tells him to show himself to Telemachus.
*Athena turns Odysseus back into his handsome stud form.
*Odysseus reveals himself to his son!
*They cry a lot!
*Odysseus tells Telemachus of his plan:
*Odysseus will show up as a beggar
*Telemachus will pretend he doesn't know him
*Odysseus will give a signal and Telemachus will grab up all the weapons and hide them EXCEPT for some swords and spears for them
*Odysseus makes Telemachus swear secrecy.
*The suitors find out Telemachus is home and plot to kill him.
*One suitor tries to stop them to no avail.
*Penelope emerges and yells at the suitors.
*She then goes up to her room, cries, and falls asleep.
*Eumeus returns, and he, Telemachus, and Odysseus eat and go to sleep.
Close Reading
*16.1-33
*16.208-55
*16.400-435
*16.463-80
Epic Similes
*16.19-25
*16.245-50
Memorable Lines
*"'I'd rather die, cut down in my own house than have to look on at their outrage day by day. Guests treated to blows, men dragging the serving women-through the noble house, exploiting them all, no shame'" (16.118-21)
.
*"'What comes from the gods--there's no escaping that'" (16.496).
"'But all lies in the lap of the great gods" (16.146).
"'But all lies in the lap of the great gods" (16.146).
Themes
*Xenia
*Family
*Masculinity
*Fate
*The Gods
Book 19
"Penelope and Her Guest"

Main Points

*Odysseus and Athena plot the slaughter of the suitors
*Telemachus shows his manliness...
*but Odysseus reprimands his son for not having a grip on himself!
*Odysseus prepares to test the women and Penelope
*"Reserved Penelope" emerges, looking like Artemis or Aphrodite
*discreet, observant, cautious, demure,
*Penelope's maid, Melantho, speaks harshly to Odysseus, and Penelope slaps her down--GO PENELOPE!
*Penelope interviews the beggar-guest, aka Odysseus.
*Penelope tells of her weaving ruse.
*Odysseus tells a but-long lie about his history and a meeting with Odysseus.
*Penelope cries a ton-->
EPIC SIMILE!-
-and tests the beggar-guest/stranger, aka Odysseus
*What was Odysseus wearing?
*The beggar-guest/stranger describes in detail a purple cape with a golden brooch that had a hound holding a dying fawn in its paws.
*Penelope cries some more--because she is the very one who gave Odysseus that brooch.
*The beggar-guest/stranger tells Penelope Odysseus is on his way home.
*Penelope insists her love is never returning and then asks the women to wash the stranger (ok, this is gross!).
*Odysseus does not want to put anyone out--he'll sleep on the floor and only a really old servant need wash his feet (hint, hint).
*The old nurse, Eurycleia, the "old retainer" arrives and bursts into tears because the stranger looks just like her old master, Odysseus.
*Eurycleia begins to bathe her master andnotices the old scar!
*Long aside of scar story
*Odysseus slayed a giant wild boar, but it first gashed his leg.
*Odysseus threatens to kill Eurycleia if she lets on that she has discovered Odysseus.
*Athena averts Penelope's eyes at the same time.
*Penelope describes her dream and asks the beggar-guest/stranger for an interpretation.
*An eagle swooped down and killed twenty geese then returns to call out that he is her husband and is killing the suitors.
*Penelope then announces the contest that will determine who she will wed:
*The man who can string and shoot Odysseus' bow through twelve axes in a row.
*Penelope then goes to bed, cries, and falls asleep.
Important Quotations

*"'Iron has powers to draw a man to ruin'" (19.14).

*"'He's come of age at last'" (19.96).

*'"Make no mistake, you brazen, shameless bitch, none of your ugly work escapes me either--you will pay for it with your life, you will'" (19.99-100)!

*"'So I finished it off. Against my will. They forced me. And now I cannot escape a marriage, nor can I contrive a deft way out. My parents urge me to tie the knot and my son is galled as they squander his estate--he sees it all'" (19.175-80).

*"'A black day it was when he took ship to see that cursed city...Destroy, I call it--I hate to say its name'" (19.297-9)!

*"'I'll observe them, judge each one myself. Just be quiet. Keepyour tales to yourself. Leave the rest to the gods'" (19.565-7).

*"'twist it however you like, your dream can only mean one thing. Odysseus told you himself--he'll make it come to pass. Destruction is clear for each and every suitor; not a soul escapes his death and doom'" (19.625-9).
Open-ended Questions
*Why are MEN driven to violence?
*What destroyed the men at Troy?
*Why would Odysseus kill all the women?
*If Penelope does indeed recognize Odysseus, what is Homer saying?
Epic Similes

*Penelope's crying is like ... (19.236-41)
*Penelope's sadness is like ... (19.583-91)
Penelope
Romare Bearden, "The Return of Odysseus"
Book 21
"Odysseus Strings His Bow"

Main Points
*Penelope retrieves the bow and its history is revealed (blah, blah, blah).
*Given to Odysseus by Iphitus, Eurytus' gallant son--with ties to Zeus and Heracles
*Penelope dissolves in tears then brings the bow to the suitors to begin the contest.
*Eumaeus, good swineherd, prepares the contest then cries too.
*The cowherd joins the crying circle.
*The suitor Antinous praises Odysseus disengenously--Antinous will die first.
*Telemachus enters and praises his mom.
*Telemachus tries to string the bow and fails after four attempts--stopped by disguised Odysseus' nod
*Telemachus whines about being a weakling.
*The suitors begin to try and fail.
*Melanthius, the goatherd, starts a fire so they can limber the bow with grease.
*Disguised Odysseus sneaks out with the cowherd and swineherd and tests them--to see if they are loyal.
*They reply that they will be loyal to their death.
*Odysseus reveals himself to them through his scar, and they cry!
*Odysseus tells them to hide all the weapons and have the women lock their doors and not to emerge.
*Suitor Eurymachus fails with the bow and speaks of Odysseus' great strength.
*Disguised Odysseus suggests he amuse them by trying the bow--his "gnarled limbs" can't do anything!
*Antinous yells at the disguised Odysseus and calls him a tramp and beggar.
*Penelope intervenes and reprimands Antinous for his lack of hospitality then tries to argue Odysseus should be given a try.
*Telemachus intervenes and says it is up to him to decide, and he wants to give the bow to disguised Odysseus.
*Telemachus tells his mom to go to her room. She is happy he is so smart!
*Penelope goes upstairs and cries herself asleep.
*The suitors begin heckling Odysseus until Telemachus intervenes and tells them to stop.
*The swineherd tells Eurycleia, the nurse, to keep the women locked up.
*Disguised Odysseus takes the bow, cradles it, and shoots it perfectly!
*Horror sweeps through the suitors; Zeus sends a lightening bolt.
*Odysseus gives a nod to his son, and tells him the hour has come, and he joins his father with his spear.
IMportant Quotations

*"'God help me," the inspired prince cried out, "must I be a weakling, a failure all my life? Unless I'm just too young to trust my hands to fight off any man who rises up against me. Come, my betters, so much stronger than I am--try the bow and finish off the contest'" (21.149-54).

*"''What breaks my heart is the fact we fall so short of great Odysseus' strength we cannot string his bow. A disgrace to ring in the ears of men to come'" (21.283-5).

*"'So, mother, go back to your quarters. Tend to your own tasks, the distaff and the loom, and keep the women working hard as well. As for the bow now, men will see to that, but I most of all: I hold the reins of power in this house'" (21.389-94).

*"Odysseus, mastermind in action, once he'd handled the great bow and scanned every inch, then, like an expert singer skilled at lyre and song--who strains a string to a new peg with ease, making the pliant sheep-gut fast at either end--so with virtuoso ease Odysseus strung his mighty bow" (21.451-6).
Themes
*Masculinity
*Xenia
*Honor
*Loyalty
*Family
*Heroism
*Retribution
Epic Simile
*Odysseus stringing the bow (21.451-6)
"The time had come" (21.1).
Slaughter of the Suitors
Book 22
"Slaughter in the Hall"

Main Points
*Odysseus reveals himself and begins the killing
*Antinous is shot first with an arrow in the throat
*Suitor Eurymachus tries to spare the rest by blaming it all on Antinous--offers repayment.
*Odysseus swears revenge.
*The suitors try to fight him, but he kills them one by one.
*Telemachus has his first kill then goes to get more weapons and the swineherd and cowherd.
*They kill suitor after suitor, "corpse on corpse in droves" (22.126).
*The goatherd, Melanthius, goes to get some weapons from the vault.
*Telemachus takes the blame, and Eumaeus catches Melanthius.
*Odysseus orders them to tie Melanthius up and hang him from the rafters.
*Athena swoops down disguised as Mentor and is lambasted by the suitors.
*Athena then yells at Odysseus to get him to fight more.
*Athena turns the suitors' arrows astray, and Odysseus and men kill and kill.
*Athena reveals herself to the suitors, and they run in terror!
*Leodes, a priest-prophet, prays to Odysseus not to be killed, but Odysseus hacks off his head.
*The bard, Phemius, takes his lyre and begs to be saved--Telemachus urges Odysseus not to kill the bard.
*The bard and later the herald are spared.
*Odysseus finds the remaining suitors and kills them all.
*Odysseus tells Telemachus to go get the nurse, Eurycleia.
*Odysseus is covered in blood--like a lion that ...EPIC SIMILE ALERT!
*Eurycleia reports on which women are innocent and which are guilty.
*Penelope, meanwhile, is SLEEPING!
*Eurycleia gets the guilty women, and Odysseus orders Telemachus to have the women clean the house and then kill them all--"hack them with your swords" (22.468).
*The women clean, Telemachus yells at them--calls them sluts, and hangs them all.
*Melanthius is then tortured: nose and ears cut off; genitals torn off and thrown to the dogs; hands and feet hacked off.
*The men then clean themselves and "fumigate the house" (22.510).
*Eurycleia releases the innocent women who all come hug Odysseus.
Odysseus cries!
Epic Similes
*22.313-5
The suitors running in fear
*22.316-24
The killing of the suitors
*22.408-14
The pile of dead suitors
*22.426-30
Odysseus after killing so many
*22.493-9
I
Important Quotations by Topic
*
X
enia: 22.8-21
*Violence: 22.83-93
*Heroism/Manliness: 22.236-52
*Bards: 22.347-81
*Violence against Women: 22.459-99
*Retribution: 22.500-4
Important Quotations
*"'now all your necks are in the noose--your doom is sealed'" (22.42)!
*"'Light me a fire to purify this house'" (22.519).
Book 23
"The Great Rooted Bed"

Book 24
"Peace"

Main Points
*Eurycleia tells Penelope her husband is home at last and that he has killed the suitors.
*Penelope refuses at first to believe her but then bursts into tears.
*Eurycleia tells of the piles of dead suitors and how Odysseus is like a lion with his kill, though he is now purifying the house (kind of late!).
*Penelope is cautious and says it must be a god.
*Eurycleia tells Penelope about the scar, but Penelope decides to take her time.
*Telemachus tells his mother to go to her husband and treats her pretty harshly, saying, "'your heart was always harder than a rock'" (23.116)!
*Odysseus gives permission to Penelope to test him then gives Telemachus orders to clean up and get the bard.
*Penelope puts Odysseus to the test by asking Eurycleia to move the bed out of their bridal chamber.
*Odysseus knows their bed can't be moved--it was made around an olive tree.
*Penelope falls to her knees and kisses her husband.
*They both CRY!!!
*Odysseus tells Penelope what he must do--follow Tiresias' orders.
*They confide in each other--well, do you think Odysseus really tells Penelope everything???
*They fall asleep together.
*Odysseus tells Penelope to wait in her chamber, and he leaves with his men toward battle.
Epic Similes
23.174-82
Odysseus' transformation thanks to Athena
23.260-72
Penelope's joy at having her husband home
Themes
*Marriage
*Trust
*Heroism
*Masculinity vs.
Femininity
Close Reading
*23.111-25
Telemachus' reproachment
*23.203-29

The bed
*23.230-58

Penelope's reaction
*23.354-87
Odysseus' story
Romaire Bearden "Odysseus and Penelope Reunited"
http://www.sites.si.edu/romarebearden/works/odysseusAndPenelopeReunited.html
Main Points
*Hermes takes the suitors' ghosts to the Underworld.
*They encounter the heroes: Achilles, Agamemnon, Ajax and exchange stories of their fates--recounting AGAIN of their sad deaths!
*The suitors relay their tale: they courted Penelope, the trickster, and were cut down ruthlessly by Odysseus.
*Agamemnon laments not having a wife like Penelope--she is NOT like Clytemnestra!
*Meanwhile, back in Ithaca, Odysseus and his men go to find Laertes, O's dad.
*Odysseus finds his father and decides to test him by pretending he does not know where he is.
*Good Laertes tells the stranger he has arrived in the most wonderful place, then Laertes asks of news of his son.
*Odysseus lies--his typical pattern--and his father begins sobbing.
*Odysseus is finally moved to tell the truth and shows his scar.
*Laertes faints, then he and his son travel home.
*Laertes is bathed and rubbed down with oil (GROSS!), and revived by Athena.
*Odysseus and men eat and prepare to face the townspeople.
*Antinuous' father rallies the forces against Odysseus.
*The bard and herald explain the gods were working alongside Odysseus.
*The old warrior, Halitherses, speaks and urges all not to attack.
*Athena, meanshile, appeals to Zeus to stop the fighting.
*Zeus tells her it was her plan all along and she should do what she wants, but he suggests they find peace.
*Athena sweeps down to Ithaca just as all are about to fight, and, disguised as Mentor, she speaks to Odysseus and family.
*Laertes calls out in pride--his son and grandson are "vying over courage" (24.568)!
*Athena helps Laertes kill Antinuous' father, and the fighting begins.
*Before war can be waged completely, Athena cries out for all to "make peace at once" (24.585)!
*Odysseus is poised to kill, Zeus sends a lightening bolt, and Athena commands peace at last.
Epic Simile

*24.5-10
The suitors going to the Underworld
Key Lines
*"'The fame of her great virtue will never die. The immortal gods will lift a song for all mankind, a glorious song in praise of self-possessed Penelope. A far cry from the daughter of Tyndareus, Clytemnestra--what outrage she committed, killing the man she married once!--yes, and the song men sing of her will ring with loathing. She brands with a foul name the breed of womankind, even the honest ones to come'" (24.216-23)!

*"'Royal son of Laertes, Odysseus, master of exploits, hold back now! Call a halt to the great leveler, War--don't court the rage of Zeus who rules the world'" (24.595-7)!
Plot Points
Athena asks the Gods to help Odysseus
Zeus scolds the mortals for not listening to the Gods' advice
Agamemnon story retold--as a warning!
Odysseus is being held as a captive by Calypso--the bewitching nymph
Poseidon is mad at Odysseus for blinding Polyphemus--Poseidon's cyclops son
Meanwhile...back at the Ithaca homestead Penelope is trying to fend off all the suitors (men who are courting her)
The suitors want to marry Queen Penelope--she's a good catch!
The suitors are really bad guests--violating the Greek code of hospitality, xenia
Athena goes down to Ithaca in disguise (as Mentes) to help Telemachus (Odysseus' son)
Telemachus shows he is a super host--honoring
xenia
Athena fills Telemachus with hope and wisdom--tells him to go seek news of his father from Spartan King Menelaus
Telemachus mans up and yells at his mother
Phemius, the bard, sings and is praised
SUZANNE VEGA LYRICS "Calypso"
My name is Calypso
And I have lived alone
I live on an island
And I waken to the dawn
A long time ago
I watched him struggle with the sea I knew that he was drowning And I brought him into me Now today
Come morning light
He sails away
After one last night
I let him go.
My name is Calypso
My garden overflows
Thick and wild and hidden
Is the sweetness there that grows My hair it blows long
As I sing into the wind
My name is Calypso
And I have lived alone
I live on an island
I tell of nights
Where I could taste the salt on his skin
Salt of the waves
And of tears
And though he,pulled away I kept him here for years I let him go
My name is Calypso
I have let him go
In the dawn he sails away
To be gone forever more
And the waves will take him in again But he'll know their ways now
I will stand upon the shore With a clean heart
And my song in the wind The sand will sting my feet And the sky will burn It's a lonely time ahead
I do not ask him to return I let him go
I let him go
Total Eclipse of the Heart?

The Reunion <3
The Journey
http://www.learner.org/courses/worldlit/media/odyssey/timeline/map_lg.jpg
Home/Family
Nostos-Journey Home
Polis-Government
Xenia-Guest/Host Code
Greed
Full transcript