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Critical Thinking Ch.5
Transcript of Critical Thinking Ch.5
Constructing Knowledge Bibi, Jasmine, Diana Beliefs v.s. Knowledge
Beliefs are interpretations, evaluations,conclusions, and predictions about the world that we endorse as true.
Knowledge is beliefs about the world that we believe are true and for which we can apply reasons and evidence
Beliefs help guide in making decisions
Beliefs and Knowledge are ever changing JOURNAL/Thinking Activity
Pick 2 of the following questions and answer based on what you believe to be true:
1)Is there a God?
2)Is the death penalty ever justified?
3)Should women have the legal right to decide to have an abortion?
4)Should research on the cloning of humans be allowed? Evaluating our Beliefs Examine the reasons or evidence that support them!
In order to get a full understanding of our world, we constantly have to revise them.
*The explorations will result in a fuller and deeper understanding of your belief (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr ... small Stages of Knowing Garden of Eden The world seems black and white/right or wrong "Authorities" tell them what to believe People in this stage can never choose what is right for themselves. Anything Goes-Stage 2 People in this stage believe that one belief can not be better than another This stage leads to conclusions can counter the "anything goes" People in this stage need to advance in order to fully understand the world. Thinking Critically-Stage 3 -The most advanced part in the stages of knowing
-People in this stage recognize that some view points are better than others
-Most open minded stage! Thinking Critically About our Beliefs Becoming a Stage 3 Thinker begins with evaluating the process you take to form beliefs. Some beliefs are profound and are deep rooted, while others are less significant.Everybody has beliefs that help guide them and help them choose their next action. Critical thinkers compared to uncritical thinkers, strive to develop beliefs through a process of analysis and reflection. Answer the following question based on your own belief:
Do aliens exist and have they visited earth in some form? Do you know this belief is certain? How? There are 4 types of reasons/evidence when thinking critically Authorities
Personal experience Personal Experiences are NOT always reliable sources for knowledge and beliefs......
People misinterpret what they see
In order to fully evaluate personal experiences, we MUST establish independent confirmation Perspectives to Gain Knowledge Perspective taking is a key part of Stage 3 of knowing.It is a powerful way to construct compelling beliefs and knowledge. Thinking critically involves becoming aware of these perceiving lenses and
evaluating their validity when determining the accuracy of information and sources
of information. Was the United States Justified in Dropping
Atomic Bombs on Japan? Historian A vs Historian B on the Bombing of Japan A:"Some historians argue that dropping atomic bombs on Japan was justified because
it shortened the war, thus saving lives in the end. Th is view is wrong. Th e United
States was not justified in dropping the bombs.they wanted to keep their emperor, the symbol
of Japanese culture. Th e United States never even talked with the Japanese about
surrender terms—American leaders kept demanding unconditional surrender. Aft er
we used the bombs and the Japanese surrendered, we let them keep their emperor anyway.
We could have allowed the Japanese to surrender earlier and saved all those lives
obliterated by the bombs by letting them have their one condition in the first place.
If the bombs were not used to bring about surrender, then why were they used? Historian B:Dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped the United States
avoid a costly invasion of Japan. It therefore saved lives in the long run, which
makes it a justifiable action.
It is true that the United States received some indication in the summer of 1945 that
Japan was trying to surrender.Although the Japanese military situation in July 1945 was approaching total
defeat, many Japanese leaders hoped for one last ditch victory in order to get
soft er peace terms.10 One of their hopes was to divide the Grand Alliance by getting
Russia (which was not at the time at war with Japan) to be the intermediary
for peace negotiations.Th e United States was right in insisting on unconditional surrender. Since the
Japanese would not surrender unconditionally, and since a demonstration bombing
would not have been effective, the only alternative to using the atomic bombs
was continuing the war. Th is would have cost hundreds of thousands more lives. In
the long run, the use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki shortened
the war and saved lives. It is important to differentiate Knowledge and Information.Information does not become knowledge until it is critically thought about. As a critical thinker, you should never accept information without establishing its accuracy and determining its bias or point of view. Bibliography
Chaffee, John ;Thinking Critically:Tenth Edition;Pages 176-225-This chapter demonstrates the steps to evaluate knowledge and construct beliefs.
Bomans,Godfried;"Knowledge and Belief.."