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European History (Teacher Editable--table 32

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Tim Laughinghouse

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of European History (Teacher Editable--table 32

Intellectual
& Cultural

Political &
Diplomatic

Social &
Economic

Joseph
Conrad
Planck
Remarque
Oppenhimer
Albert
Camus
Levi-Strauss
Betty Freidan
James
Joyce
Werner
Heisenberg

Albert
Einstein

Pablo
Picaso
Wassily
Kandinsky
Salvador
Dali
Persistence of Memory
Henri
Matise
Paul
Cezanne
Pierre Renoir
#10
Virgina
Woolf
Sigmund Freud
20th Century
Intellectual
Science
Literature
Les Demoiselles
d'Avignon.
Art
John Paul II
Marie
Currie

Simone
Beauvoir
The Scream
Edvard Munch
Franz Ferdinand
Alexander
Dubceck
Boris
Yeltsin
de gaulle
Petain
Francisco
Franco
Josip
Tito
Lech
Walensa
Mikail
Gorbachev
Joseph Stalin
Karensky
Margaret
Thatcher
Demcratic Protests in Eastern Europe
Franz
Ferdinand
WWII Europe
International
Boundaries 1936
20th Century
Nikita Khrushchev
Leonid
Brezhnev
Vladimir
Lenin
Russia
Joseph II
Sobeden
Milosivic
Yugoslavian
Break-up
Former Soviet
Republics
Adolf Hitler
Mussulini
Grigory
Rasputin
Nicolae Ceausescu
Helmut
Kohl
Willy
Brandt
Social
Economic
1945-1970s Welfare State in UK provides health care, social security, better housing
1950s-1960s Mass production and industrial
productivity rise all over Europe
1970s: Economic growth slows; inflation, stagnation, unemployment, hurt by Arab oil embargo (1973)
Global economy spreads: international companies, outsourcing jobs, international econmic cooperation and competition.
Europe tightens immigration policies
after 9/11attacts in US
20th Century
&
John Maynard
Keynes
1964 Birth rate starts to fall, due partly to birth control pill
Agricultural production doubles due to mechanization, new fertilizer, peasants nearly disappear
Alexander
1801-1830
Nicholas I
1825-1855
The Great War
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Kerensky
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenin
20th Century
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…
-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities

The Tricolor is the Fashion!

The Path of the “Great Fear”

Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.
A strong man emerges and assumes great power.
The extremists try to create a “heaven-on-earth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.
A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs.
Moderate groups regain power. THE REVOLUTION IS OVER!

Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take

Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end.
Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries.
Revolutionaries gain power and seem united.
Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve.
The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes.

Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take

Ancien Regime Map, 1789

French Budget, 1774

Socio-Economic Data, 1789

The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.
The government does not respond to the needs of its society.
The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.
The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself.
The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly.

Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs

Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children

French Expansion: 1791-1799

The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict.
½ of the officer corps had emigrated.
Many men disserted.
New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained.
French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.

French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie!

June, 1791
Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].
Headed toward the Luxembourg border.
The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border

The Royal Family Attempts to Flee

Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791

The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.

The “October Days” (1789)

Did women have equal rights with men?
What about free blacks in the colonies?
How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?
Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas

Revolutionary Playing Cards

Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution

June 20, 1789

“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David

Last time it was called into session was 1614!

Convening the Estates General May, 1789

Where is the tax money?

Financial Problems in France, 1789

King’s Budget:
Interest 50%
Army 25%
Versailles 25%
Coronation 10%
Loans 25%
Admin. 25%
TOTAL 160%

Urban Commoner’s Budget:
Food 80%
Rent 25%
Tithe 10%
Taxes 35%
Clothing 20%
TOTAL 170%

The French Urban Poor

People from all social classes are discontented.
People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.
People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for.
People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes.
The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile.

Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs

He borrowed his terms from pathology.
Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:
The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”
It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.”
The crisis ends when the “fever” breaks.
A period of convalescence follows, interrupted by a relapse or two before the recovery is complete.

Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a Revolution

February 26, 1790

83 Revolutionary Departments

GOAL  Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!

A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.

“Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.
1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.
Domestic servants were also excluded.

The French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government

An independent judiciary.

A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.
Had the power to grant taxation.

The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].
He could not pass laws.
His ministers were responsible for their own actions.

The French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government

Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.
The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.
They began circulating as paper currency.
Government printed more  INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].
Therefore, future governments paid off their creditors with cheap money.

Depreciation of the Assignat

One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.

How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790)

The conservative response to the French Revolution

Sir Edmund Burke (1790): Reflections on the Revolution in France

1790

Planting the Tree of Liberty

A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.

We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!

March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789

Liberty!
Property!
Resistance to oppression!
Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.

August 26, 1789

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge

Citizen!

The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.

The Tricolor (1789)

Safeguard the right of private property!!

Their Goal

Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]
Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.
Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.

BUT . . . . .

Before the night was over:
The feudal regime in France had been abolished.
All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.

Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.

The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789)

They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.

The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”

“The Third Estate Awakens”

Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!
“Madame Deficit”
“The Austrian Whore”

Let Them Eat Cake!

1,600,000 livres [$100 million today]

Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
The Countess de LaMotte

The Necklace Scandal

Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793

Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]

Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.
The church was reorganized:
Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.
Bishops  named by the department assemblies.
The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.
It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!!

New Relations Between Church & State

The oath of allegiance permanently divided the Catholic population!

Jurying vs. Non-Jurying [refractory] Clergy

July 12, 1790

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.

2. Print Assignats

18 died.
73 wounded.
7 guards killed.
It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].

A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly.

Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789

Abbé Sieyès 1748-1836

1st What is the Third Estate? Everything!
2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!
3rd What does it demand? To become something therein!

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes

Eliminated in 1790.

Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV!

A carte-blanche warrant.

The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.

Lettres de Cachet

Women played a vital role in the Revolution.
But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)

Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)

This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.

Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!

AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT

1792-1797

FRANCE

The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)

Fraternité!

Egalité!

Liberté!

August Decrees August 4-11, 1789
(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)

National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791

Liberté

La Republic

Revolutionary Clock

Cockade

Revolutionary Symbols

648

300

300

The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head!

Clergy
1st Estate

Aristocracy
2nd Estate

Commoners
3rd Estate

Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.

1

1

1

The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates

Clergy
1st Estate

Aristocracy
2nd Estate

Commoners
3rd Estate

Florence

Renaisance Art PP
Realism
Cubism
Surrealism

Monet
Post-Impressionism

Van Gogh
Starry Night
Expressionism

Abstractism
Modern
Landscape at Vetheuil
Mont Sainte-Victoire

John Paul Sartre
Counter Reformation
Renaissance
War of
Three
Henrys

Page 390, 441
Pragmatic Sanction
Gerneral Council
over the Pope
Pages 442, 490
Spider King--treachery
Improve economy
Economic teaties
Patron Arts
-Concordat
of Bolonia
Choose
Bishops
-Ordinance that
said all of France
under his rule.
page
492
Age 10-24
Mother
Dominate
Unscuccesful
Page 490-492
Signed
Treat of
Cateiau-Cabrese
Executes
Henry of Guise
(Catholic League)
492
Unpopular
page 534
Converted to Catholic
Issued Edic of Nantes
Cared about his people
12 assasination attempts
Delete
Delete
Louis XIV
dies 1715
-War of Austrian
Succession
1740-1748
-Seven Years War
1756-1763
-French Revolution
1789
The War of
Spanish Succession
The French
Revolution

Enlightenment
19th
George III
1760-1820

George IV
Reign 1820-1837
Guernica
Manet
Guaguin
Water Lilies
Impressionism
Pollack
Improvisation #30
ab·stract art
noun
art that does not attempt to represent external reality, but seeks to achieve its effect using shapes, forms, colors, and textures.
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity…
-- Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities

French Expansion: 1791-1799

Louis XVI “Accepts” the Constitution & the National Assembly. 1791

The Tricolor is the Fashion!

The Path of the “Great Fear”

Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control.
A strong man emerges and assumes great power.
The extremists try to create a “heaven-on-earth” by introducing their whole program and by punishing all of their opponents.
A period of terror [extreme violence] occurs.
Moderate groups regain power. THE REVOLUTION IS OVER!

Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take

Europe on the Eve of the French Revolution

Ancien Regime Map, 1789

French Budget, 1774

The French Urban Poor

The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates.
The government does not respond to the needs of its society.
The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the opposition groups.
The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself.
The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily and unjustly.

Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs

People from all social classes are discontented.
People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or the govt.
People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for.
People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing bitterness between social classes.
The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile.

Crane Brinton: Conditions Present Before a Revolution Occurs

Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

Marie Antoinette and the Royal Children

The French armies were ill-prepared for the conflict.
½ of the officer corps had emigrated.
Many men disserted.
New recruits were enthusiastic, but ill-trained.
French troops often broke ranks and fled in disorder.

French Soldiers & the Tricolor: Vive Le Patrie!

June, 1791
Helped by the Swedish Count Hans Axel von Fusen [Marie Antoinette’s lover].
Headed toward the Luxembourg border.
The King was recognized at Varennes, near the border

The Royal Family Attempts to Flee

February 26, 1790

83 Revolutionary Departments

One of the most controversial decisions of the entire revolutionary period.

How to Finance the New Govt.? 1. Confiscate Church Lands (1790)

1790

Planting the Tree of Liberty

The king was thought to be surrounded by evil advisors at Versailles so he was forced to move to Paris and reside at the Tuileries Palace.

The “October Days” (1789)

Did women have equal rights with men?
What about free blacks in the colonies?
How could slavery be justified if all men were born free?
Did religious toleration of Protestants and Jews include equal political rights?

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Posed New Dilemmas

Revolutionary Playing Cards

Equality & Meritocracy!

Before the night was over:
The feudal regime in France had been abolished.
All Frenchmen were, at least in principle, subject to the same laws and the same taxes and eligible for the same offices.

Night Session of August 4, 1789

Rumors that the feudal aristocracy [the aristos] were sending hired brigands to attack peasants and pillage their land.

The Great Fear: Peasant Revolt (July 20, 1789)

Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end.
Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries.
Revolutionaries gain power and seem united.
Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve.
The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes.

Crane Brinton: The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take

June 20, 1789

“The Tennis Court Oath” by Jacques Louis David

Last time it was called into session was 1614!

Convening the Estates General May, 1789

Where is the tax money?

Socio-Economic Data, 1789

Marie Antoinette NEVER said that!
“Madame Deficit”
“The Austrian Whore”

Let Them Eat Cake!

Marie Antoinette’s “Peasant Cottage”

“Hist210—Europe in the Age of Revolutions.” http://www.ucl.ac.uk/history/courses/europe1/chron/rch5.htm
“Liberty, Fraternity, Equality: Exploring the French Revolution.” http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/
Matthews, Andrew. Revolution and Reaction: Europe, 1789-1849. Cambridge University Press, 2001.
“The Napoleonic Guide.” http://www.napoleonguide.com/index.htm

Bibliographic Resources

GOAL  Make sure that the country was not turned over to the mob!

A newly elected LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.

“Active” Citizen [who pays taxes amounting to 3 days labor] could vote vs. “Passive” Citizen.
1/3 of adult males were denied the franchise.
Domestic servants were also excluded.

The French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government

Pope Pius VI [1775-1799]

Government paid the salaries of the French clergy and maintained the churches.
The church was reorganized:
Parish priests  elected by the district assemblies.
Bishops  named by the department assemblies.
The pope had NO voice in the appointment of the French clergy.
It transformed France’s Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the state!!

New Relations Between Church & State

Whoever acquired them were entitled to certain privileges in the purchase of church land.
The state would retire the notes as the land was sold.
They began circulating as paper currency.
Government printed more  INFLATION [they lost 99% of their value ultimately].
Therefore, future governments paid off their creditors with cheap money.

Depreciation of the Assignat

The conservative response to the French Revolution

Sir Edmund Burke (1790): Reflections on the Revolution in France

A spontaneous demonstration of Parisian women for bread.

We want the baker, the baker’s wife and the baker’s boy!

March of the Women, October 5-6, 1789

Liberty!
Property!
Resistance to oppression!
Thomas Jefferson was in Paris at this time.

August 26, 1789

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

The “Liberty Cap”: Bonne Rouge

Safeguard the right of private property!!

Their Goal

Feudal dues were not renounced outright [this had been too strong a threat to the principle of private property!]
Peasants would compensate their landlords through a series of direct payments for obligations from which they had supposedly been freed.
Therefore, the National Assembly made revolutionary gestures, but remained essentially moderate.

BUT . . . . .

18 died.
73 wounded.
7 guards killed.
It held 7 prisoners [5 ordinary criminals & 2 madmen].

A rumor that the king was planning a military coup against the National Assembly.

Storming the Bastille, July 14, 1789

They proclaimed themselves the “National Assembly” of France.

The commoners finally presented their credentials not as delegates of the Third Estate, but as “representatives of the nation.”

“The Third Estate Awakens”

Financial Problems in France, 1789

King’s Budget:
Interest 50%
Army 25%
Versailles 25%
Coronation 10%
Loans 25%
Admin. 25%
TOTAL 160%

Urban Commoner’s Budget:
Food 80%
Rent 25%
Tithe 10%
Taxes 35%
Clothing 20%
TOTAL 170%

He borrowed his terms from pathology.
Compares a revolution to a fever or a disease:
The revolutionary “fever” begins with the appearance of certain “symptoms.”
It proceeds by advances and retreats to a crisis stage, or “delirium.”
The crisis ends when the “fever” breaks.
A period of convalescence follows, interrupted by a relapse or two before the recovery is complete.

Crane Brinton’s Anatomy of a Revolution

Marie Antoinette & Louis XVI

The French Monarchy: 1775 - 1793

An independent judiciary.

A permanent, elected, single chamber National Assembly.
Had the power to grant taxation.

The king got the “suspensive” veto [which prevented the passage of laws for 4 years].
He could not pass laws.
His ministers were responsible for their own actions.

The French Constitution of 1791:
A Bourgeois Government

Issued by the National Constituent Assembly.
Interest-bearing notes which had the church lands as security.

2. Print Assignats

Citizen!

The WHITE of the Bourbons + the RED & BLUE of Paris.

The Tricolor (1789)

Abbé Sieyès 1748-1836

1st What is the Third Estate? Everything!
2nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!
3rd What does it demand? To become something therein!

Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes

Eliminated in 1790.

Cardinal Fleury issued 80,000 during the reign of Louis XV!

A carte-blanche warrant.

The French king could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal.

Lettres de Cachet

1,600,000 livres [$100 million today]

Cardinal Louis René Édouard de Rohan
The Countess de LaMotte

The Necklace Scandal

By: Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley H. S. Chappaqua, NY

Women played a vital role in the Revolution.
But, The Declaration of the Rights of Man did NOT extend the rights and protections of citizenship to women.

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Citizen (1791)

Olympe de Gouges (1745-1793)

The oath of allegiance permanently divided the Catholic population!

Jurying vs. Non-Jurying [refractory] Clergy

July 12, 1790

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy

This military crisis undermined the new Legislative Assembly.

Duke of Brunswick if the Royal Family is harmed, Paris will be leveled!!

AUSTRIA PRUSSIA BRITAIN SPAIN PIEDMONT

1792-1797

FRANCE

The First Coalition & The Brunswick Manifesto (August 3, 1792)

Liberté

La Republic

Revolutionary Clock

Cockade

Revolutionary Symbols

Fraternité!

Egalité!

Liberté!

August Decrees August 4-11, 1789
(A renunciation of aristocratic privileges!)

National Constituent Assembly 1789 - 1791

648

300

300

The Number of Representatives in the Estates General: Vote by Head!

Clergy
1st Estate

Aristocracy
2nd Estate

Commoners
3rd Estate

Louis XIV insisted that the ancient distinction of the three orders be conserved in its entirety.

1

1

1

The Suggested Voting Pattern: Voting by Estates

Clergy
1st Estate

Aristocracy
2nd Estate

Commoners
3rd Estate

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Realism_(art_movement)
Daumier
Romantic
New Monarchs
18th
17th
16th
Full transcript