Overall Purpose

**Formal Science**

Formal Science is purely analytical.

The formal sciences are used to help add context to systems found in the world with quantitative science. Quantitative science is mostly made up of mathematics and computer science.

Core Values

In the formal sciences, the types of writing are very objective and to the point. The goal of a formal piece is to relay data from experimentation or research and often these works are unbiased.

Types of Writing and Conventions

Sub-Fields

**Spencer Tully, Khalil Duncan, Matthew Ayers, Hunter Pierce**

Decision Theory

Game Theory

Mathematics

Computer

Science

Formal mathematics deals with logic and theoretical equations.

Theoretical computer science, the formal subset of computer science, deals with the more mathematical aspects of computing.

Works Cited

Involves the identification of the values, uncertainties, and other issues related to a certain decision.

The main sub-fields include most theoretical sciences such as game theory, decision theory, information theory, statistics, and logic.

The popular understanding of game theory is a new study in game development. However in the Formal sciences, game theory is similar to decision theory in that it is the research in the process of decision making.

Common Citation Formats

One scholarly example is

an academic journal on decision theory titled Decision Theory Under Ambiguity. It covers the uncertainties involved in decision making and the models used to try and explain the process of decision making.

History of Formal Sciences

The most common citation formats used in formal science are AMS and MLA.

The works within the formal science discipline actually date back till before the formation of the scientific method, one of the most prominent examples of the Formal Science disciplines.

- Mathematics most notable sub-field under the Formal Science Discipline

- Dates back till 1000BC, 1600BC and even 1800BC

-All civilizations contributed some form of mathematical text

-Greek, islamic and indian mathematician

- Following mathematics, another early form of Formal science was the development of logic and the method of reasoning

Differences From Other Fields

Example of writing within conventions of formal sciences

Formal sciences are very precise and based solely on absolute facts.

The formal sciences are much more unchanging than other fields. For instance calculus has remained relatively unchanged since its inception while biology or chemistry change rapidly with every new discovery made in that field.

Since the formal sciences are so necessary for our understanding of the world they are some times used to explain the other sciences.

Formal Systems

P versus NP

- Here is an example of a text within the formal sciences

- this is a mathematical exploration or report seeking to prove a theory and explore the mathematical concept

- The purpose of the writing is to explain and explore the mathematical theory and why it is important. The report explores and explains the logic and theory behind the theorem or topic being investigated

Formal systems is the name given to the organization of terms and relationships used to analyze a topic. These systems are described as being their own unique languages bound by their own sets of grammar and formed of their own alphabet of symbols. They are used by humans to interpret complex and abstract ideas found in the world around us. We can then take these systems

and find patterns and derive rules based on the patterns.

One major topic in theoretical computer science is the unanswered question about whether problems can be solved (P) in close to the same number of steps as they can be checked (NP).

AMS

MLA

AMS citation involves using numbers in brackets to tell the order in which the citation is mentioned. A list of the authors relating to the citations used are placed at the end of the document with their corresponding numbers.

Because of its simplicity and conciseness, MLA is a popular citation method in formal science. MLA features an alphabetical list of works at the end of the document.

"Cellular Automata." The Institute of Mathematical Sciences. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

"Decision Theory." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Aug. 2014. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

Etner, Johanna, Meglena Jeleva, and Jean-Marc Tallon. Decisions Theory Under Ambiguity.

Journal of

Economic Surveys,

26.2 (2010):234-270. Print.

"Formal Science." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Sept. 2014. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

"Formal Sciences." The Sciences at W&L. Washington and Lee University, n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

LÃwe, Benedikt. "The Formal Sciences: Their Scope, Their Foundations, and Their Unity." JSTOR. Springer,

n.d. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

Ajam, Shadia. "What Is the P vs. NP Problem? Why Is It Important?" College of Science. University of Notre

Dame, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

"Theoretical Computer Science." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 09 Aug. 2014. Web. 15 Sept. 2014.

VanderSchee, Ian.

Proving Euler's Theory

. 31 July 2013 . Web. 12 Sept. 2014