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Professional Practice

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Neena Chawla

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of Professional Practice

Domain 2: Culturally Responsive and Effective Practice
Ethical Practice
Principle 6: Reflective: Evaluating practice for future improvement
Principle 4:Inclusive Teaching -Valuing diversity and contribution of all learners
Principle 3: Ecological approach-Interventions within students’ current learning environment
Principle 3: Ecological Approach:Interventions within students’ current learning environment
Principle 5: Strength Based: Maximise potential and participation of all involved
Principle 4. Collaborative and Seamless Service: Communication and sharing knowledge
Principle 7: Evidence Based- Interventions shaped by research, culture and students’ needs
“RTLB are specialist itinerant kaiako/teachers who provide learning and behaviour support to a cluster of kura/schools” (Ministry of Education, 2013b).
Domain 3: Ethical and Reflective Practice
Domain 4: Contextualised Practice
Domain 5: Interprofessional and Evidence-based Practice
Domain 6: Culturally Responsive and Effective Practice
Principle 7: Evidence-Base Practice: Interventions shaped by research, culture and students’ needs
Community of Practice (COP)
Role of an RTLB
Principle 2: Culturally Responsive: Tataiko, Pasifika Education Plan, valuing culture and identity

Domain 1: Professional Learning and Identity
Culturally Responsive
Seven Principles
Practice Sequence
COP for
Sharing expertise, information, developments, resources and philosophies
Passing on information
Opportunities for discussion
Finding way forward
Upskilling and refreshing others
Sharing workload
Giving guidance and ideas
Formulating interventions
Circles with in circles
Professional learning group
SENCO network
Different COP groups
Academic Learning/Professional Development (PD)
Making links with appraisals, TRC and Tataiko
Cluster wide PD based on need analysis
Maori, Pasifika PD
Critical friend model
Peer Supervision
Dynamic Ecological Analysis
TKI website
Professional readings
Online research
Ministry’s educational programmes
Specific to student referrals
Personal interests

Barriers to PD
Fully prepared
Time Management
Regular timely communication
Share problems
Re-evaluate life and work balance
Positive mind-set
Time with family
Take time out
Reading for pleasure
Supportive friends
Yoga, meditation
Ask for help
Draw on skills of others
Schools refer students to the RTLB service to
Provide a classroom teacher with special teaching strategies
Introduce class or school-wide programme
Work directly with a child or small groups of children from year 1-10 (Ministry of Education, 2013a)
A particular focus on supporting Maori and Pasifika students and children moving into State care.
Support and up-skill teachers to better meet the needs of students within an inclusive education system
May support and use the following programmes and initiatives
1. Gateway Assessments
2. Hei Awhiawhi Tamariki ki te Panui Pukapuka (HPP): " supporting children’s oral language development”
3. High and Complex Needs Service (HCN)
4. Positive Behaviour for Learning (PB4L)
5. Social Workers in Schools (SWiS)
(Ministry of Education, 2011)
Compliance with the RTLB practice
Professional Development
(Ministry of Education, 2011)

Role of an RTLB
Interprofessional Practice Project
RTLB Cluster Organisation
How RTLB get PD
Ministry of Education, 2011)

Framework for building meaningful relationships & success for Maori

Meaning: What RTLB say
An understanding of the diversity of the students, teachers, whanau and the community we work within
Considering ones’ culture, beliefs , values and opinions in various situations
Responding to the differences and needs of Maori and Pasifika
No one size fits all
Why to promote Culturally Responsive Practice
Creates a safe environment for the student and one where their self-esteem is kept intact
Foundation of building a positive relationship with the student
Treaty of Waitangi
Forms the foundation of our practice
Students needs are being catered for using Hikairo Rationale
Using restorative practices and looking after relationships
Building relationships and working with Whanau
More pertinent is our need to break the cycle of poverty and provide an appropriate education for Maori
How RTLB support/encourage cultural responsiveness
Seek advice and guidance from people from other cultures
Open to other cultures
Follow cultural protocols
Ask questions about students culture
Participate in cultural events
Identify Maori needs and tailor interventions to suit their learning style like ako
Shared power with whanau, common vision, include Maori protocols,
Try to learn some Te Reo words
Multicultural: acknowledging Pasifika
Use interpreters
Pasifika Education Plan
Carrying out bilingual assessments
Authentic and genuine when engaging with relationships with whanau 
More accepting
Listening more
Maori practice/tikanga
Incorporate culture/language into our action/intervention plans
PD focus on Maori and Pasifika cultures to support/acknowledge colleagues as well as students
Make links to Tataiako competencies
Use correct pronunciation of people’s names and place names
Listen to what the whanau wants and include them in decision-making
Biculturism and multi-culturism
"Multiculturalism: all over, no defined national commitment"
Biculturalism: "Commitment through the Treaty of Waitangi to the two partners"
(RTLB 4 , 2013
Follow the school culture
Good teaching practices
Consulting documents like Tatiako, Pasifika Plan and Kahikitia (ako, identity, language and culture)
 Acknowledge Maori culture, protocols and procedures e.g. Hui
How do RTLB promote bi-culturism and multi-culturism
Ethical Dilemma
Look at policy documents
Refer and show documents to people
See practice leader or cluster manager
everyone having same information alleviates ethical issues
Reflective Practice
Improves my practice
Enhances and leads to continual learning
Daily log
Case reviews in our teams
Invite feedback
regular review meeting at different points with school personnel,
Personal self reflection  
Every day, all the time, with myself or with others 
Policies and documents to inform practice
Help to shape my practice
support my discussions, decisions, intervention plan, and next steps
Directly or indirectly guided by it all  the time
Whole practice within the parameters of code of ethics
4 fundamental principles
1.Autonomy: to treat people with rights that are tob e honoured and defended
2. Justice: to share power and prevent the abuse of power
3.Responsible Care: to be good and minimise harm to others
4. Truth: to be honest with others and self

Inclusive Practice
Provides effective environments that enhance learning, self-identity, participation and contribution
Equal right to access education
Included and is a fully participating member of the class
Has a positive relationship with the teacher and other students
Innovation and adaptation of the curriculum
Strength based approach
Feel supported by the team
School support and systems
‘Can do’ attitude
Success of interventions
Positive feedback
Commitment to change
Communication and collaboration
Deficit approach
School management
School organisation
Lack of parental involvement
Lack of cultural awareness
Teachers’ professional knowledge and skills
Teachers’ attitude
Family commitments
Resourcing and funding
Class size
How do RTLB support inclusion
Strength based approach
Provides strategies that identify and break down barriers to inclusion in the least intrusive way
Road shows about inclusion
Adapts the current curriculum  to meet their needs in the classroom
A variety of scaffold activities
Teacher aides work with higher functioning groups so that the classroom teacher can have time to work specifically with students with SEN
Regular meeting with teachers, parents and teacher aides
Create student profiles  and with management consider appropriate placement for each child
Develop transition plan for children on case load
Theories of Learning and Development
are important for more knowledge, better practice
Wider understanding assists to collaborate with teachers
Understanding of student development leads to knowing what/where gaps are to fill and being able to forward plan
Better understanding of what to expect next and how to deal with it
Humanist Learning Theory
Holistic Learning Theory

Difference between the Maori and Western views of development
Vygotsky: Zone of proximal development

Broffenbrenner: Ecological model
Build relationships
Equal importance on intellect and emotions: Te whare tapa whamodel
To address the needs in more culturally appropriate manner

What support is needed to get to the next stage
All around scaffold learning and the principles of peer tutoring and cooperative learning and the concept of ako
Child in the centre and all the components come around the child
How RTLB use them
Evidence Based Practice

“Intersection of research, professional knowledge and experience and the needs and knowledge of the teachers, students and whanau" RTLB 4, 2013
“Intersection of tika, pono and aroha” RTLB 5, 2013
Triangulation of data
Constantly adapting curriculum to meet individual needs of the child or support quality teaching practices using research based intervention strategies
Gathering evidence based data to base interventions
Research driven qualitative and quantitative assessments and interventions
Strength Based Practice
Building on students’ strengths- identified and acted upon
Considers ALL aspects of individual case and then assesses the best way forward
Follow te whare tapa wha model for holistic wellness
Try to shift the strengths across to change the weaknesses into strengths
How do RTLB develop relationship with teachers
Empathy with teacher
Acknowledge their barriers and difficulties
Introduce yourself and clarify rolesin entry meeting
Build credibility
Stick to time frames
Walk the talk
Committed, passionate, non-threatening person
clarification about independent service of appraisal and performance management
Assertive in a friendly way
Listen, collaborative, don’t impose yourself
Consistent and flexible
Strategies to involve parents
Every opportunity for student & parent voice  e.g. in IEP
Positive feedback
No blame but accountability
Friendly & approachable
Strength based not deficit so glass half full – not half empty
Equal partnership and opportunity to contribute and take ownership of the process
Explain what is going to happen next
Collaborative action plan
Accommodate to where parents like to have meetings
Keeping the child at the centre 
Acknowledge difficulties of families
Listen to them, parents know the child better
Keep regular communication
Show interest in their child, not being critical
Offer support
Show an appreciation of others’ cultures, beliefs, values, opinions and their experience/expertise in their field/area.
Provide records of minutes/meetings and be transparent during consultation.
Make some connections
Skills for collaboration
Communication – being able to share what you know
Cooperative skills – trying to gain consensus – vision and goals at the centre / valuing others input
Active listening
Empathy - ability to see both sides
Reliability- Follow through on what you say
Understanding other people's roles
Reliability- Follow through on what you say
Know what you can do
Negotiation skills - Give and take
RTLB collaborate with other Agencies
Presbyterian support services
Autism NZ
Parent to parent
Special education people
Public health nurse
Hearing and vision
Moderate need people
Speech and language therapist
Attention Behaviour Team
Why collaboration
Maximum benefit for child
Not everyone is skilled to meet every need of child
Special expertise and strengths in many areas, support, sharing ideas
Sharing the workload, better outcomes and positive shifts/results
Upskills and refreshes my professional learning
Clear understanding, same page, no hidden agendas
Uses of AT
To assist in writing
To increase parents’ participation
Assists hearing impaired students
Helps students in processing and recording thoughts and ideas
Empower students
Feeling of success
Allows kids to better access the curriculum
Increase engagement
Long and laborious application form
Trial three different assisted technologies to evaluate the best
To keep up to date with ICT developments
Lack of time to research and trial new technology
Need to prove the need for AT
Responsibility for the devise
Funding and or time to get the support tools/technology in place
Space taken in the class
Safety of the students
Safety of the technologies i.e. ipads
Cost of access and training
AT used by RTLB
Alpha Smart Keypads
WordQue, Kidspiration Learning Staircase programs
Photo story
Talking books
PM reader programmes
Fast Forward
Hearing aids
FM system through MOESE
Dragon Naturally
How do RTLB support AT
Observing the equipment to see if it could meet student's needs.
Trialling equipment to see whether it is appropriate
Monitoring the use of equipment
Offering professional development for teachers
Apply through the Learning Support Fund for programmes and equipment or to fund programmes for placement on the school server
How do RTLB keep up with new technology
Consultation with colleagues
Attending PD/courses
Reading up on tki websites
Professional readings
Word of mouth
Use of assessments
Pre and post data
To check progress
Sharing information
Helps in future planning
Fair, valid and reliable assessments
Various phonological tools
LASS for dyslexia
Communication check list
Bi-lingual assessments
Gateway assessments
Meeting with parents
Spelling tests
running records, Probe
Te Whariki
JOST, Renfrew picture test
Self-rating scale
Aston Index
Criterion Test
Self assessments
E asstle
Progressive achievement tests
Work load
PD not available
Lack of support
Lack of knowledge
Making links with my own cultural identity to understand and empathise with the cultural background and circumstances of others
Know your own bias and triggers to be able to make allowances for yourself
Know where you sit so that your judgements are not clouded
Own Culture
RTLB's Key Role
RTLB Principles
Evaluating practice for future improvement
Evidence Based Practice
Interventions shaped by research, culture and students’ needs
Culturally Responsive and Effective Practice
Valuing culture and identity

Inclusive Teaching
Valuing diversity and contribution of all learners
Ecological Approach
Interventions within students’ current learning environment
Strength Based Practice
Maximise potential and participation of all involved
Collaborative and Seamless Service
Communication and sharing knowledge
Well-being and work life balance
Respectful, professional, collegial at all times 
Knowing boundaries, modelling positive values and listening
Truth and honesty.
Preserve the mana of each person
Behaves with integrity and within the code of the profession
Keep specifically to the role description to keep our practice safe and ethical
Collaboration: open, transparent
Code of Ethics
Compiled by Neena Chawla
He aha te mea nui o te ao?
He tangata! He tangata! He tangata!
What is the most important thing in the world?
It is people! It is people! It is people!
Whāia te iti kahurangi
Ki te tūohu koe, me he maunga teitei
Pursue excellence – should you stumble, let it be to a lofty mountain
Nā tō rourou, nā taku rourou
ka ora ai te iwi
With your food basket and my food basket
the people will thrive
I would like to thank all the interviewees for their time and thoughtful responses.
Kia ora
RTLB toolkit
Code of ethics
Pasifika Education Plan
National standards
Numeracy project
Success for all
Collaborative plan from the MOE
NZ Curriculum
Ka Hikitia
Host school and cluster policies
Collaboration for Success
Bilingual Assessment Service Handbook
Registered Teachers Criteria (RTC)
Professional Standards
Best Evidenced Synthesis (BES);
Effective pedagogy in each curriculum area
Interview Data
Geographical Area: Auckland, Tauranga, Rotorua, Taraniki, Waikato
Number of interviews: 14
Decile: 1-10
Ethnicity: Mixed
Experience: 4-14 years
Gender: All females
Schools: Primary, intermediate, secondary
(Ministry of Education, 2011)
(Ministry of Education, 2011)
(Ministry of Education, 2011)
(New Zealand Teachers Council, 2011)
RTLB 1, 2013
Core Theory and Foundation 2013
"Being professional, confidential, thinking through before you do something, in other words, think before you act, and not being reactive. Reflecting on what the situation is and being able to feed forward, and then adapt and develop"
RTLB 2, 2013
(New Zealand Teachers Council, 2004)

(New Zealand Teachers Council, 2010)
(Ministry of Education, 2011)
(Durie, 1984)
Durie, M. H. (1984). 'Te taha hinengaro': An integrated approach to mental health. Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 1(1), 4-11.
Learning and Behaviour Group 3. (2013). Domains interview data. Retrieved from http://specialistteaching.net.nz/mod/forum/view.php?id=4032
Massey University. (2013). Core theory and foundations of specialist teaching.
Ministry of Education. (2011). Resource Teacher: Learning and Behaviour service toolkit. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.
Ministry of Education. (2013a). Resource teacher: Learning and behaviour. Retrieved 4 August, 2013, from http://www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/SpecialEducation/ServicesAndSupport/ResourceTeacherLearningAndBehaviour.aspx
Ministry of Education. (2013b). Resource teacher: Learning and behaviour online. The RTLB service. Retrieved 4 August, 2013, from http://rtlb.tki.org.nz/About-RTLB-service
New Zealand Teachers Council. (2004). Code of ethics for New Zealand teachers.
New Zealand Teachers Council. (2010). Registered teacher criteria handbook. Wellington: New Zealand Teachers Council.
New Zealand Teachers Council. (2011). Tataiako:Cultural competencies for teachers of maori learners. Wellington: Learning Media.
Digital Resources
PD on flicker 6
PD on e-learning tools and devices
I ph, laptops, i pads, projectors
Uses reputable sites online to research up to date educational research related to specific caseload referrals
Interactive games, Apps, visuals, videos, You Tube clips, taking photos, making videos
using Google  for books on ADHD
use of online chat rooms, forums
Domain 1 summary
• In this domain, questions were asked about the communities of practice (COP), digital resources and academic learning. Most interviewees find it very useful to engage in a professional COP and they were involved in a number of COP’s within and outside their clusters.
• All RTLB keep themselves updated on professional learning using a variety of ways, although there are some barriers to their professional development such as time and funding.
• RTLB use a number of strategies for their wellbeing and work life balance. They range from being organised to doing yoga and meditation.

Domain 2 summary
• Interviewees demonstrated a great depth of their understanding of culturally responsiveness. They use tataiko, Ka Hikitia and Pasifika Education plan to inform their practice. RTLB value knowing student’s culture as the foundation of building a positive relationship with the student.
• Having professional development workshops to learn more about other cultures is an integral part of their practice. One interviewee mentioned about asking questions to ensure student’s needs are being catered for using Hikairo Rationale and other RTLB believes in using restorative practices and looking after relationships rather than using a punishment model.
• Treaty of Waitangi forms the foundation of RTLB practice; the principles of protection, participation and partnership are followed particularly while working with Maori students.
• This is an interesting comment made by an RTLB about the treaty:
• “There are so many liberal interpretations of the Treaty and it becomes a weighted issue. More pertinent is our need to break the cycle of poverty and provide an appropriate education for Maori”.
• Biculturalism and multiculturalism was a debated issue again. Some RTLB’s were confused about not having any proper definition of multiculturalism, although most of them were very clear about biculturalism and they support it using Treaty of Waitangi principles.
• It was interesting to note that all RTLB see the importance of knowing their own culture to make links to others.

Domain 3 summary
• Questions were based around the competencies of domain 3. They included the meaning and strategies for reflective practice, ethical dilemma and policies and documents used by the RTLB.
• Most RTLB use reflection as an essential part of their practice. They reflect at many steps of their practice, for example to analyse data, for interventions and for the assessment of set goals. They use many ways to reflect such as keeping daily log and discussing in the critical friend process.
• The understanding of ethical practice was based on many values- respect and integrity being the most important ones.
• RTLB refer to many policy documents to inform their practice and to solve an ethical dilemma. The most common used documents are the RTLB toolkit, code of ethics, Tataiko, and the teacher registration criteria. RTLB didn’t mention about using any particular model for solving an ethical dilemma.

Domain 4 summary
• Inclusion was seen as a positive move towards success for all. Some schools are adapting it rapidly; others still need consistent support in terms of understanding and implementing inclusion. There were a number of barriers identified to inclusion mainly deficit thinking and negative attitude of educators.
• RTLB use a variety of strategies to promote inclusion in schools. One RTLB mentioned about having an inclusion road show in her cluster schools.
• RTLB base their practice on many learning and development theories- Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development being the most common one. It relates to the principles of peer tutoring, cooperative learning and the concept of ako. It also suggests what support is needed to go to the next step of learning.

Domain 5 summary
• Evidence based and strength based are two of the seven principles of RTLB practice. One RTLB defined evidence based as “the intersection of research, professional knowledge and experience and the needs and knowledge of the teachers, students and whanau. So, it’s the intersection of those three, which was tika, pono and aroha”.
• Interviewees mentioned about building on students’ strengths, and then centre your interventions on that. Adapting curriculum to meet the individual needs of the child or support quality teaching practices using research based intervention strategies are the basis of RTLB practice. They also mentioned about using the whare tapa wha model for holistic wellness.
• Building relationship with parents, teachers, whanau, schools, and the community was seen as the root of RTLB practice. RTLB identified many strategies to develop effective relationship with others. RTLB also listed a number of agencies that they collaborative with, keeping learners at the heart.

Domain 6 summary
• RTLB use ecological approach while collecting data and planning interventions. They use many assessment tools to collect data. These tools can be categorised as academic, psychological, behavioural, cognitive, phonological and motor skills. Sometimes RTLB arrange assessments to be done with other agencies as they are not trained to perform all kid of assessments. All assessments are found useful if they are used appropriately after knowing what we want to find out. Sharing information helps in future planning. RTLB use assessment for pre and post data but it is important to use same assessment tools for validity and reliability.
• Interviewees use a variety of assistive technology as part of their practice sequence. Using I phones, projectors, laptops and I pads are very popular. Certain ipad applications are used as interventions for some students such as WordQ, Kidspiration and Learning Staircase programs.
• RTLB try to keep up with the new technology through professional readings, workshops and TKI website.
• There are certain challenges that were seen in using assistive technology in schools such as time consuming applications and responsibility for I pads.
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