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Transcript of Advertising
• The things that we buy in stores - clothes, soft drinks,
• The ads themselves - what the advertising industry
• While both of the above are true, the most important
product of advertising is you.
• Advertisers have trained you and all members of the
public to give them your time, attention, and money.
• They have even convinced you to pay them to condition
Advertising is Pervasive
• With only 8% of the world's population, the U.S.
absorbs almost half of the world's advertising
• The average American is exposed to between 250 to
more than 5,000 ads per day.
• Few Americans have a negative attitude about
advertising - about 15%. 45% say they have they have a
generally favorable attitude and the rest are neutral.
• In other words, advertisers have done a good job
conditioning us to accept the flood of advertising
messages with few complaints.
Money Spent on Advertising
• About $500 million was spent on advertising in 1900.
Today it is more than $260 billion per year - more than
$1,160 per person per year.
• An advertiser who wants to introduce a new product
and break through the existing clutter must spend
around $50 million to get the consumers attention.
Unthinking Support of Advertising
• Although we do have complaints, these are minor compared to
• We accept the saturation and allow our behaviors to be shaped by
TWO EXAMPLES OF UNTHINKING SUPPORT:
1) We spend much more money on advertised products (nearly
twice as much) when we have a choice of buying brands that are
2) How much we voluntarily participate as an advertiser ourselves
Pervasiveness of Advertising in America
• 60% of a typical
• Commercials are becoming the norm before a
And, once a film begins, they are filled with product
placement. "Just Go With It" featured more than 50
examples of product placement.
• Up to 40 minutes of ads are played per hour on the
, during certain times of the day.
• TV ads are steadily increasing. They are also invading
places other than our homes; elevators, airports, and gas
Advertisers are now paying for product placement in
• In 1998, advertisers spent an estimated $2 billion on the
. They now spend over $29 billion a year.
• What are some
Popular Surface Criticisms of Advertising
Advertising Manipulates Us Into Buying
Things We Don't Need
• This is a popular surface criticism.
• If we follow Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, at the base we
only really need food clothing and shelter to survive.
• At the highest level is self-actualization. It is here that
social needs are dealt with. Each person defines what is a
necessity for him or herself.
Advertising Makes Us Too Materialistic
• Some critics claim that advertising makes us too
materialistic. But, how much is too much?
• With less than 8% of the world's population, the U.S.
consumes nearly 30% of the planet's resources.
• Many Americans believe we are too materialistic, yet we
keep asking for more.
Advertising is Deceptive
• Do ads lie?
• Advertisers are fond of using
, which is the
making of claims that cannot be tested for truth.
• Puffery gives the illusion to viewers that they are being
given important information about the product.
• Another element of puffery is to tell the truth - but not
the whole truth.
• Advertising messages are designed to use puffery to trick
us into believing that there is more to a product than
there really is.
Companies Manipulate us Through Subliminal Advertising
• The idea of subliminal advertising having an effect on us
is a hoax!
• If our sense organs cannot perceive an image, then it can
have no effect on us.
• There is, however, such a thing as "unconscious effects
• With subliminal, we do not perceive the message. With
unconscious we do but we don't think about it; thus the
message gets into our subconscious without us being
aware of it.
Advertising is Excessive
• This is subjective to an individual's capacity for
• 70% of people believe that there is too much advertising
on TV. However, 70% of people also say that all of the
advertising is a fair price to pay to watch "free TV".
• TV, if you look at the big picture, is hardly free. How
are we paying for TV?
About 35% of the cost of an advertised product goes to advertising. In other words, if you were convinced to buy a product from TV, you are paying extra.
Advertising Perpetuates Stereotypes.
• Almost all advertisers use stereotypes. Why?
• The problem has less to do with stereotyping and more
to do with whether the portrayals are positive or
• Advertisers are sometimes criticized for not being
responsible. What this criticism really means is that
they are not socially responsible.
• Is it socially responsible, for example, to advertise liquor
on TV? How about marketing cigarettes to people as
young as 14? How about marketing SUV's to people
who do not regularly have more than a single passenger?
Becoming More Literate
• Because we are exposed to so much advertising, we
remain in a state of automatic processing. However, the
exposure continues even though we are not paying
attention to the ads.
• Almost all exposure to ads is unconscious, yet it still
• To increase your media literacy about advertising, you
need to have elaborate knowledge structures about
advertising and about your own needs.
Types of Skills and Knowledge Structures
Needed to Deal With Advertising Messages in a Media-Literate Manner
ch.11, pg249 (7e)
What is the Intended Effect of the Ad?
• Most people think that ads are designed to convince
people to buy products. Very little advertising, however,
has this intention.
• The most prevalent intention of ads is reinforcement.
• Most ads are targeted at people who already use the
product. The advertisement is designed to remind those
customers that the product still exists and that it is a good
What Are Your Needs?
• The more you are aware of your needs, the more you
can use advertising to your advantage.
• If you are not aware of your needs, advertising will
shape them for you.
Ability to analyze an advertisement and identify key elements of persuasion
Ability to compare and contrast key elements of persuasion in the ad with facts in your real-world knowledge structures
Ability to evaluate the veracity in the ad
Ability to analyze the feelings of people in the ad.
Ability to put one's self into the position of different people in the ad.
Ability to analyze the craft an artistic elements of the ad
Ability to compare and contrast the artistry used to craft this ad with that used to craft other ads
Ability to analyze the moral elements of an ad
Ability to evaluate the ethical responsibilities of advertisers