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ENGL106 - Integrating Sources

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Sara Keel

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of ENGL106 - Integrating Sources

Other Rules
Citations
Brackets
Mistakes
The Ellipses Mark
Direct Quote
Block Quote
Paraphrase
Integrating Sources
Paraphrase vs. Direct Quotation
A paraphrase is restating an author's ideas in your own words.
- This can be a summary (condensing
information)
- Or a restatement of a single idea
(approximately the same length)

A direct quote copies EXACTLY what a writer said - every word, letter, and comma.
Any time you use someone else's words or ideas, you should be sure that you give them credit!

There are 2 kinds of citations, and you need to include both every time you paraphrase or quote:
In-text citations - these are the ones included in the body of your text
Works Cited - this lists the sources in your essay.
When restating someone else's idea, give them credit by including an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrase.

The in-text citation usually includes the writer's last name and the page number on which the information was found. This information should go in parentheses after the sentence but before the period.

This is someone else's idea (author page number).

Personal computers have posed new challenges for employers worried about workplace productivity (Lane 15).
When using a direct quote, copy the writer's words exactly. Put the sentence(s) in quotation marks. Then put the writer's last name and the page number in parentheses at the end of the quote: after the quotation marks and before the period.

"Direct quote" (author page number).
"By 1987, employers were administering nearly 2,000,000 polygraph tests a year to job applicants and employees" (Lewis 22).

Just like when you paraphrase, if you include the author's name in the sentence, you don't need it in the in-text citation.

According to the author, "this is a quote" (number).
Charles Lewis points out that "by 1987, employers were administering nearly 2,000,000 polygraphs a year" (22).
When a direct quote is longer than 4 typed lines (or 3 lines of poetry), create a block quote.

A block quote is set off by 1 inch from the rest of the text. Do not use quotation marks, and the citation comes at the end of the quote and after the period.

This quote is longer than
four lines. That is why it
needs to be made into a
block quotation. There are
special things you need to
do when writing a long quote. (Author page)
When writing a direct quotation, copy the sentence(s) exactly as they look in the original, even if something is misspelled.

If there is a misspelled word include [sic] after the word. This way your reader knows that it's not your mistake!

"Even if something is mispeled [sic], include it exactly as it looks in the original"
There are very precise guidelines for citing sources. Here are some rules about citing that you will want to know!
The ellipsis mark: You can take out part of a direct quotation and replace it with an ellipsis (three periods with a space between each).

If you take something out, be sure that you still maintain the meaning of the quote!

"The theft of information that can be downloaded to a . . . disk, e-mailed to oneself . . . , or even posted to a Web page" (Lane 12).
In this sentence, the words "floppy or Zip" and "or a confederate" were left out.
You can insert your own words into a quote if you put them within brackets.

If you are taking a quote from the middle of a sentence, but want to begin your sentence with the quote or have it stand alone, fix the capitalization within brackets.

"[T]he second half of this sentence is quoted by itself" (name page).

If you are using a quote and it includes pronouns referring back to a sentence you are not including, you can replace the pronoun and include the proper noun in brackets.

"In the article, he is referenced earlier"
"In the article, [Charles] is referenced earlier"
Paraphrasing:
Putting Ideas into Your Own Words
When you paraphrase, be sure that you maintain the meaning of the original source.

Do not half-copy the sentence. This is an easy mistake to make, so be careful. This counts as plagiarism!
do not mix the author's words with your own.
do not plug your synonyms into the author's sentence structure.

The easiest way to write a good paraphrase is to read the information carefully, then set the it aside. Try to answer one of these questions without looking at the text:
What is the author's meaning?
What is the main point?
Good Paraphrase
Every time Aimee Mullins sees her name in the papers she braces herself for some predictable version of the same headline followed by the same old story. Paralympian, actress, and fashion model, Mullins is a bilateral, below-the-knee amputee, who sprints a hundred meters in less than sixteen seconds on a set of running prostheses called Cheetahs because they were fashioned after the leg form of the world's fastest animal.
Paraphrase this sentence
From the local paper where she grew up to national exposure in Esquire and People and guest spots on Oprah, Mullins's "inspiring" saga is recycled almost verbatim by well-meaning journalists for audiences who never seem to get enough of its feel-good message even if they never actually find out who Mullins is.
Read this sentence carefully
Paraphrase the sentence by answering one of the following questions:
What does the speaker mean?
What is the main point?
Bad Paraphrase:
Mixing:
No matter where she appear, in newspapers or on television, Mullins's "inspiring" saga is recycled almost verbatim by well-meaning journalists for audiences who never seem to get enough of its feel-good message even if they never actually find out who Mullins is.

Replacing synonyms:
From the hometown paper to national exposure in magazines and guest spots on Oprah, Mullins's "inspiring" saga is used again and again almost verbatim by well-intentioned journalists for people who never seem to get enough of its warm-fuzzy message even if they never actually know who Mullins is.
Using Quotations
In order to have an effective argument, you need to write the arguments of others into your text.

Directly quoting someone else's words gives credibility to your writing and helps ensure that the information you present is fair and accurate.

Quotations function as a kind of evidence.

Here are some suggested templates to help you introduce quotes in your writing:

X states, "______."
According to X, "_____."
In her book,___, X maintains that, "______."
In X's view, "_____."
Writing in the journal ___, X complains that, "_____."
As a respected scholar in his field, X writes, "_____."
As X puts it, "_____."
X states, "______."
According to X, "_____."
In her book,___, X maintains that, "______."
In X's view, "_____."
Writing in the journal ___, X complains that, "_____."
As a respected scholar in his field, X writes, "_____."
As X puts it, "_____."
Using the quotes you picked out in your homework, write down three quotes using these templates.
Framing Quotations
When including direct quotes, it is important to remember that quotations do not speak for themselves!
Although it may be obvious to you, it may not be so clear to your reader why you chose to include a certain quote.
Here are the steps to "framing" a quote. You should do this every time you include a direct quotation!

1) Be sure that the quote is relevant to what you are saying.

2)Present the quote in a way that makes its relevance clear to the reader.

3) Include the quote

4) Follow-up by explaining why you consider the quote important and what you think it says.
Using a quote from your homework, try to write a frame for it.

before: explain who is speaking and what the quote says.

after: explain why you consider the quote important and what you take from it.
If you include the author's name in the sentence, then you don't have to include it in the citation.

According to the author, I restate the idea in my own words (page number).

Frederick Lane believes that the personal computer has posed new challenges for employers worried about workplace productivity (15).
If you are summarizing an entire book or article, you do not need to include the page numbers.

This is a summary of the article (author).

If you include the author's name in the summary, you don't need an in-text citation. But don't forget to include the source in your works cited!

The author's article covers many different ideas.
This is very rarely needed
For homework:
1) Write frames for all of the quotes you picked out from "Nick Adams"

2) Start working on your paper! First draft is due Wednesday!
Writing a Works Cited
Article
The Basics
Your Works Cited list comes at the end of your paper; it provides detailed information on the sources you used in your essay.

A Works Cited is a necessary part of any paper. It is useful for a number of reasons:

It shows the reader that you did your research

It tells your reader where to find the information you cited.
Setting Up Your Works Cited
For every book, article, website, etc. that you quote or paraphrase in your essay, you should create an entry in your Works Cited.
Like the rest of your paper, the Works Cited should have one inch margins and be double space.

Your paper and Works Cited should be consistently paginated. That is, if your essay is 3 pages long, your Works Cited should be labeled page 4.

The top of the page should be titled "Works Cited." The words should be centered and in plain text. (Do not bold, italicize, or underline.)
When writing a works cited, use a hanging indent of 1/2 inch for each entry.

Your Works Cited should be alphabetized by the first word in each entry, usually the author's last name.

Do Not: number the entries, add additional space between entries.
There are specific guidelines for creating a Works Cited entry.

These rules exist so that everyone cites their information in the same way. That way you can be sure that you are including the correct information, and anyone reading your paper will be able to understand the information you have provided.
Book
Writing an Entry
Kilbourne, Jean.
Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We
New York: Simon, 1999. Print.
Author's last name, first name
Think and Feel.
period
Title of the Book, in italics
Place of
publication
colon
Publisher's
name
comma
period
Year of
publication
period
Publication medium
period
1/2" indent
Harkin, Patricia. "The Reception of Reader-Response Theory."
College Composition and
56.3 (2005): 410-25. Print.
Communication
Title of the article (in quotation marks)
Period goes inside the
quotation marks
Title of the periodical (italicized)
Volume and
issue number
no punctuation
Year of
Publication
parentheses
colon
Inclusive
page numbers
Finding the right information
Sometimes it can require a little bit of investigation in order to find the necessary information for a citation.

In a book, you will usually find the information on the title page and copyright page.
title page
copyright page
title
author
place of publication
publisher's name
year of publication
All of the information that we have looked at so far is in MLA documentation style. That's what we'll be using in this class.

However, different fields of study use different documentation styles. Other formats include APA, Chicago, and CSE. Each of these styles differs according to what is more or less important in that field.

Moreover, these guidelines change periodically, especially when new technology becomes more widely accepted and used.
It would be almost impossible to memorize all of these different formats and styles. What is more important is being able to recognize what kind of source you are citing, how to look up how to cite it, and being able to find the information and format the citation correctly.
Group Activity
Each group will receive a source for which you need to create a citation.

1) Identify what kind of source you have and find it listed in your textbook.

2) Write out the citation

3) Come up with a 3 minute lesson to explain a) how you identified the type of source, b) where the citation is in the book, and c) how to write the citation.

*Everyone needs to participate in some way in the presentation!
In all the appearances Mullins makes, from hometown newspapers to Oprah, her "inspiring" story is told rote, though well meaning, for audiences thirsting for a "feel-good" story, whether or not they even know who Mullins is.
Practice developing interesting signal phrases.
Write introductions for the following two quotes:
1) "The mainstream press finds it irresistible."

2) "This steady diet of sugar has its dangers."
in pairs...
Summarize a reading or fairly lengthy passage from Parts 1-3 of EAA, following the guidelines from chapter 19.
Open the item with a correct MLA citation for the piece.
Then provide the summary itself.
Follow up with a one- or two-sentence evaluation of the work describing its potential value as a source in an academic argument.

In effect, you will be preparing an item that might appear in an annotated bibliography.
For an example, go to p.434 in EAA
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