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Food Security and Food Sovereignty

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Frances Johns

on 1 November 2017

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Transcript of Food Security and Food Sovereignty

Food Security and Food Sovereignty
The Food War
The Oil We Eat
Food Security & Food Waste
More than one billion people in the world go hungry
However, one third of all food produced is thrown away
Food Sovereignty Today
Food Security: when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and preferences for an active and healthy life.
Neolithic Revolution
12,000 years ago, people discovered that farming on favourable parts of the earth was of more benefit that simply hunting and gathering. From this simple revolution, the global population rocketed from 5 million people 10,000 years ago to more than seven billion today
Food waste impact on the environment
Food Redistribution: way of solving the problem of food waste while solving the problem of food security . There are 3.6 million food insecure people in Australia
Food Sovereignty: the right of people’s healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods and their rights to define their own food and agriculture systems.
Defining Food Sovereignty
On an International Level
Nyeleni 2016
Food Sovereignty in Venezuela
The Six Pillars of Food Sovereignty:
1. Focuses on Food for People

2. Values Food Providers

3. Localizes Food Systems

4. Puts Control Locally

5. Builds Knowledge and Skills

6. Works With Nature
La Via Campesina
-2016 Forum from October 25th-30th
-Included 500 delegates from over 43 countries

-Aim was to continue to build the movement in Europe and to foster platforms for food sovereignty in countries without them.

Outcome of the Forum
-Building Convergence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

-Women in Food Sovereignty

-The Voices of Those Marginalized by Colonialism and Coloniality, Enslavement, and Oppression

-Researchers Within Food Sovereignty

-Founded in 1993 by farmers organizations from Europe, Latin America, Asia, North America, and Africa

-Coined the term "food sovereignty" during the FAO World Food Summit in 1996

-Includes 148 organizations to date

-Advocates for family-farm-based agriculture

-Adopted a national policy of food sovereignty into their constitution in 1999

-Had abandoned agriculture through its petroleum economy

-Has dramatically reduced hunger while bolstering domestic food production

-Redistribution of landholdings to over 200,000 farming families
-Government assistance with tools, credit, training, and receiving fair pricing
-Ban of large scale bottom trawling boats
-Credit for seed saving and biological pest control
-Government run supermarkets

-Bridging the urban-rural divide
-Creation of farmer's markets
-Growing food on rooftops, patios, and in community gardens

Contributes to climate change
Emissions from incinerating food
Waste of finite resources (oil and water)
Let's Play a Game
Hunger kills more people every year than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined.
Africa has the highest region of hungry people in the world.
In 2016 alone hunger and food insecurity increased health expenditure in the US by $160 billion
Poor nutrition causes nearly half (45%) of deaths in children under 5
There are more starving people in the world than there are obese.
1 in 20 people in the world do not have enough to eat
Until the last century, all of the food energy available on this planet was derived from the sun through photosynthesis.
Solar energy set a limit on the amount of food that could be generated at any one time, and therefore placed a limit upon population growth.
The Green Revolution
In the 1950s and 1960s, agriculture underwent a drastic transformation commonly referred to as the Green Revolution.
The Green Revolution was able to supersede traditional agriculture by using fossil fuels to increase agricultural production.
New technologies;
high-yielding varieties (HYVs)
synthetic nitrogen fertilizers
petroleum based agro-chemicals
hydrocarbon powered machinery, refrigeration, and irrigation
oil dependent distribution system...

Peak production?
When peak production occurs we know that roughly half of the resource remains, however much of it will never be produced because it becomes too energy intensive to do so, i.e. it takes increasingly more energy to produce increasingly less energy.
Hubbert’s Peak (2004)
The poor spend 50-80% of their income on food.
Norman Borlaug
40% of food in America is never eaten.
Regarded as the “Father of the Green Revolution”
Received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, credited with saving over a billion people from starvation.
Was recruited to help develop a high-yield, disease-resistant dwarf wheat, which proved so successful that by 1963 Mexico became a net exporter of wheat.
The development of high-yield, disease-resistant monocultures cultivated with chemical fertilizer and pesticides allowed India and Pakistan to nearly double their wheat yields between 1965 and 1970.
A Second Green Revolution?
The World’s Rice Bowl
If the world’s population grows by 1 billion, an extra 100m tonnes of rice is required to feed them
Given current world-population forecasts, total rice consumption, now under 450m tonnes, is likely to grow to 500m tonnes a year by 2020 and to
555m by 2035.
Problem = Rice yields not growing at that rate
With current technology,
ten tonnes a hectare for rice in intensive-farming systems may be the limit.
As the world population has grown by 5 billion since the beginning of the green revolution, in the Pfeiffer reading he presents us with three choices for the future of humanity:

1. We can make the conscious choice not to add more people to our population.
2. We can force population cuts through government regulations.
3. Or our last choice, in the coming decade we could see massive starvation on a global level never experienced before by the human race.

So I want us to get into three groups, and discuss if you think world leaders are going to take population management seriously, or if we’re going to see Pfeiffer’s die off scenario?
Full transcript