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Cultural Scrapbook: The Hearing Impaired

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Jessica Nethers

on 10 March 2015

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Transcript of Cultural Scrapbook: The Hearing Impaired

Cultural Scrapbook:
The Hearing Impaired

History
Popular Culture and Society
History of Film
The Silent Film Era extends from the early 19th century into the early 1930s
Silent films were made popular by the Lumière Brothers in France as well as Edison in The United States.
The term “silent” came in to play because there was not synchronized sound in the movie.
Silent films were often accompanied by an orchestra or a solo pianist.
Often in the theaters there would be a descriptive talker or lecturer would narrate the film.
Silent films were so important because they were the first time other than text, drawing and photography that American Sign Language (ASL) was being used in motion.
Marlee is the only deaf person to win an Academy Award for Best Actress in a Lead Role. She has also won a Golden Globe and has had 4 Emmy nominations.
Marlee is 100% deaf in her right ear and 80% deaf in her left ear.
Her talents were featured in the film
Children of Lesser Gods
,
The West Wing
and
Blue’s Clues
.
Currently she is on the ABC Family’s show
Switched at Birth
where she plays the mother of another hearing impaired actor Sean Lance Berdy.
Marlee is also an active member in the National Association of the Deaf

Marlee Matlin:
Hearing Impaired Film Star
Switched at Birth
first premiered in the Summer of 2011. The show is about two teenage girls who were switched at birth due to an error by the hospital. Of the two girls, one of them is deaf due to damage to her eardrums because of a high fever.
The show is centered around the lives of the two girls but also features a school for the deaf, ASL, subtitles and the family's journey to learn how to communicate with their new found daughter.
This show is a milestone for the Deaf Community because it is the first primetime show that is centered around the deaf community and deaf culture, as well as having two leading characters played by Marlee Matlin and Sean Berdy that are hearing impaired actors.
Deaf Culture in Music
“There is a notion that music is only heard and thus, can only appreciated by the hearing. However, deaf people have a unique and challenging perspective to music that has seldom been explored outside of deaf communities.
Within the deaf and hard of hearing world, there are people not only creating music, but people who love and make music a part of their lives.
In this world, the various shades of gray are celebrated as the spectrum of deafness, from slightly hard of hearing to "stone deaf" are all part of this community. The experience of sound can be different for many people who's abilities with hearing are not clearly identified in terms that hearing people are used to. It is never an either/or experience, and definitely not something that the hearing world can understand completely. Most assume deaf people enjoy music solely by tactile sensations, but going beyond feeling vibrations, what is the experience of music like for someone who doesn't hear or least least like we do?" (Ament, 2010).
Signmark - First deaf rapper to be signed to a record label
Dame Evelyn Glennie - Award winning deaf percussionist
Sean Berdy - actor
Matt "The Hammer" Hamill - American wrestler and MMA fighter
Evelyn Glennie - Scottish percussionist
Signmark - Finnish rapper
Charlie Chaplin in
The Lion's Cage
Glee - "Hairography" episode (2009)
"Imagine" as performed by the Haverbrook School for the Deaf and the New Directions
Mr. Holland's Opus (1995)
"Beautiful Boy"
Education
Counseling the Deaf and Hearing Impaired
American Sign Language
References
K-12 Educational
Opportunities
Residential schools
Day schools that specialize in sign language
Day schools that specialize in spoken language
Charter schools that specialize in bilingual/bicultural education
Public schools with programs for deaf or hard of hearing students
Students learn best through visual modes
Parents are encouraged to learn sign language in order to communicate with their child better
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Schools that receive public funding must provide accommodations to students with disabilities
This applies to both K-12 and post-secondary schools
For students that are hard of hearing, these accommodations could be interpreters, real-time captioning or assistive listening devices
This also requires that schools provide program accessibility to parents with disabilities to ensure effective communication
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
and No Child Left Behind
Requires public schools to provide "free, appropriate education" to children
Allows counselors and teachers to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for students with disabilities
Prior to IDEA and No Child Left Behind (NCLB), deaf and hard of hearing students were not being assessed or even being provided the same curriculum as hearing students. How could they measure how they were progressing in school?
Now they have access to the same standards and benchmarks, are provided the same curriculum, and provided support to help them succeed.
Gallaudet University
Gallaudet
University
The world's only university with programs and services designed specifically for deaf and hard of hearing students
Founded in 1864
Located in Washington, D.C.
Offers both undergraduate and graduate programs
Also has an elementary school and high school associated with the college
http://www.gallaudet.edu
St. Rita
School for the Deaf
Founded in 1915
Location: Cincinnati, OH
Offers education for K-12 school
Became the first Catholic high school for deaf students in the country
Full range of educational programming for deaf students, students who are hard of hearing and those with apraxia
Only school in the country with programs specifically designed for students with apraxia
Educational Resources
List of schools and programs for deaf and hard of hearing students: http://tinyurl.com/apzcd2r
List of educational resources in the state of Ohio: http://tinyurl.com/pomzdvd
True Life: Deaf Kids Shining Bright in High School
Great video put together by a teacher and four deaf students who were transferring to a mainstream school. They are educating their fellow students and teachers on how to effectively communicate with them.
Inclusion versus Mainstreaming
Mainstreaming implies that deaf and hard of hearing students can receive their education in the public school system, but not necessarily in a regular classroom
Inclusion is more complex than mainstreaming
Inclusion means that the "regular classroom will be changed to accommodate all different learners"
In inclusive settings, regular classroom teachers will work with special educators to make adaptations to the curriculum
Unfortunately, there is a big gap between the philosophy and practice of inclusion and this affects the quality of education a deaf or hard of hearing student may receive in public schools
The language is comprised of hand positions, finger and arm movements, and facial expression
ASL is a key aspect of the deaf culture
For a deaf person, the use of ASL is crucial to being included in the culture
Each region of the country has culture bound signs for words, which makes the language unique
Homesigns- Special signs that are created in a specific household

ASL is the language deaf people use to communicate with one another
Fingerspelling/Numbers
- The basic alphabet and numbers act as the starting point for most courses

Hand Signs/Motions
- The signs made with hands mean whole words and, when combined, form sentences

Glossing
- When in writing, ASL is in all capital letters and does not include excess words such as articles along with other differences in syntax from English. This is one of the areas with the most obvious differences to English.
“Where is the bathroom?” translates to “WHERE BATHROOM WHERE”

Three Basic Aspects
Eye Contact is important to utilize in interactions as this is a great way to let the other person(s) know that you are engaged
Sign Space- refers to the area in which most signs are signed
Use the hand you feel most comfortable with to sign
Facial expression and vocal sounds take the place of tone, inflection, emotions, etc.
Precision is important because it lets one communicate clearly and effectively. Sloppy signing is considered rude.
ASL is not English

Important Things to Know
Working with deaf clients may be the ultimate challenge for counseling professionals, requiring them to examine their preconceived ideas about the relationship between thought and language.
Tailoring Counseling to Individual Needs
It is important to be aware of the individual's cultural identity and his or her mode of communication as well as any assistive technology the person may require for effective communication.
In the event interpreters are needed, identify where to locate and how to utilize them in advance.
Regardless of hearing status, reducing glare and background noise and having one person speak at a time will help with effective communication.
Pathological (Medical) Perspective on Deafness
In the pathological point of view, the focus is on the amount of hearing loss and how to correct it. This correction is done through the use of cochlear implants and hearing aids, and by learning speech and lip-reading.
The emphasis is on making the deaf person appear as "normal" as possible, with the perspective that being hearing is to be considered "normal,"
and deaf people are not "normal."

Cultural Perspective on Deafness
Deaf and hearing people who adopt the cultural perspective
embrace deafness as a unique difference and do not focus on the disability aspect.
Sign language is "OK," and in fact may be viewed as the natural language of deaf people, because visual communication is a natural way to respond when you can not hear.
What model should be used in counseling?
Although there is much historical emphasis on the medical/pathological model, the
cultural/linguistic model
is considered more culturally considerate and therapeutically appropriate when one is working in a counseling setting.
Using a interpreter in counseling
The interpreter is in the session for both the counselor and the client.
The interpreter should:
Be nationally certified
Have experience interpreting counseling and mental health situations.
Confidentiality: Making sure the interpreter knows the code of conduct and ethics.
Best practice includes the client in any communication with the interpreter.
Talk to the client directly, avoid saying things like “tell her that…”
Consulting and Connecting with Deaf Counselors
Gallaudet University Training Program
The world’s only training program that prepares mental health and school counseling graduates to work with a wide range of Deaf people. 
Be aware of the Deaf Counseling agencies in your area.
Networking with counselors at workshops or conferences
Cultural competence and working through biases
Consciousness of how Deaf clients’ lives are shaped by their identity and experiences and by being members of a cultural/linguistic minority group. 
It is important to discuss counseling options with the client. (i.e. interpreters, ASL, referral)
Ongoing counselor advocacy, client empowerment and use of reframing.
Encouraging clients to develop skills and tools for managing oppression, prejudice and negative attitudes.
Key Counseling Approaches
Remember that Deaf people are diverse. No Deaf person is the same. 
Visual exercises: including art and play therapy
Be aware that ASL is a specific language. 
Avoid making decisions for the client or giving advice. 
Avoid making assumptions about what Deaf people should be feeling. 
Avoid asking Deaf clients to teach you about Deaf people or ASL.
Beware of challenging Deaf clients to explore patterns of dependency and statements of helplessness. This may trigger transference.
by Jessica Nethers, Megan Palmer, Ariel Smallwood,
Dayahn Thomas and Eric Witherell

1620
The first generally accepted book of sign language written by Juan Pablo Bonet
Late 1700’s
France:
The first free public school for the deaf was founded by a priest, Charles Michel De L’Eppe. He also develops and establishes French sign language.
He also publishes a dictionary of French sign language and establishes a shelter for the deaf
Germany:
Samuel Heinicke develops “the German Method” of oral education for the deaf by having the students feel his throat while he speaks
Approximately 1000 B.C.
Jewish law protects the deaf but does not give them full rights.
Approximately 350 B.C.
Aristotle “Deaf people could not be educated (since) without hearing, people could not learn.”
“Men that are deaf are in all cases dumb; that is they can make vocal sounds, but they cannot speak.”
Approximately 500 A.D.
Benedictine Monks who have taken vows of silence to honor God develop a form of sign language.
1500’s
Development of Education for Hearing Impaired
Monk Pedro Ponce de Leon (Benedictine) successfully teaches speech to people who were born without hearing.
Ancient History
Ancient History
Educational History
1817
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc (who trained under De L’Eppe’s successor in France) found the Connecticut Asylum for the Education and Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons in Hartford Connecticut (Now the American School for the Deaf)
1856
P.H. Skinner’s School for the Colored Deaf Children, the first school for African American children who are deaf, opens in Niagara City, New York
1880
The Conference of Milan (an international group of deaf educators) determines that oral methods of education are better than manual methods, which leads to the sharp decline of sign language teachers and users globally. The only country opposed to this declaration was the United States, which was also the country that had experienced the most success with sign language.
1954
Segregation is outlawed by the US Supreme Court leading to the integration of colored schools for the deaf with white schools for the deaf.
1967
Total Communication (which combines both manual and oral education techniques for the deaf) is developed and soon embraced by the public school systems.
1988
Eight days of student protests lead to the selection of I. King Jordan as the first deaf president of Gallaudet University.
Educational History
Technology
1892
The first electrical hearing aid is invented (though at this point it weighs several pounds and is not considered user friendly).
1950
The first transistor hearing aid available for purchase.
1980
Closed Captioning is developed.
1985
The cochlear implant is approved for clinical trials.
Rights, Politics and Opportunities
1850’s
Congress considers a proposal to establish a “deaf state” in the western territories where people who are hearing impaired can live together in a community free from the prejudice of the hearing community. (It does not get approved).
WW I and WW II
Employment of hearing impaired persons increases dramatically as they are not allowed to serve in the U.S. Military and are needed to fulfill manufacturing jobs.
1964
Congress issues the Babbidge Report which declares that oral deaf education has been a failure.
1973
The rehabilitation act of 1973 “protects qualified individuals from discrimination based on their disability.”
“Under this law, individuals with disabilities are defined as persons with a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities.”
http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/factsheets/504.pdf
1975
Public Law 94-142 (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) mandates that for states to receive federal funding they must provide free and appropriate public education to all children with disabilities.
1990
The American’s with Disabilities Act is signed, requiring greater education and employment opportunities for people who are hearing impaired.
1990
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is re-adopted with the amendment promoting “the least restrictive environment” for students with disabilities. This leads to the closing of many deaf schools.
1993
The FCC requires all television makers to include the closed captioning decoding chip in their products.
Rights, Politics and Opportunities
Cultural History
1920’s
Gallaudet University’s football begins the trend of huddling up to hide hand signals instructing the next play. This leads to football teams across the board using the huddle formation.
1937
The first motion picture in sign language is produced by Ernest Marshall.
1945
American Athletic Association for the Deaf is founded in Akron, Ohio.
1989
The Deaf Way (an international conference on deaf culture) is held at Gallaudet University with more than 6,000 deaf people from around the world in attendance.
Cultural History
In 1995, Heather Whitestone is crowned as the first Miss America who is hearing impaired.
In 1901, the first grand slam in the American league is accomplished by William Hoy who is hearing impaired. During Hoy’s career umpire hand signals are developed. (Side note: Hoy also played for the Reds!)
In 1964, the Teletypewriter (TTY) is invented by Robert Weitbrecht, who is deaf. The TTY is still used today and allows people who are hearing impaired to call and type out their phone conversations over typical phone lines.
In 1836, inventor Samuel F.B. Morse - who communicates to his deaf wife through tapping his fingers in her hands – invents the telegraph (Morse code).

Morse’ business partner Amos Kendall donated much of his wealth from the telegraph to the founding of the Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind in 1864 (which is renamed Gallaudet College in 1893) and Kendall Demonstration Elementary School (1857) on his estate in Northeast Washington DC.
In 1823, the first state-supported school for the deaf in the United States opens in Danville, KY.

The Kentucky School is the only deaf school that remains open in the southern states throughout the civil war.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
ASL Conversation
Full transcript