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Compound Nomenclature Flow Chart

A flow chart on compound nomenclature.
by

Emily Zohoranacky

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of Compound Nomenclature Flow Chart

Compounds

IONIC
COVALENT

METALS + NON-METALS

-IDE/-IUM &
-IDE
-ITE
PURE
POLAR

MONO-
DI-
Compound Nomenclature
POLYATOMIC IONS
TRI-
TETRA-
PENTA-
HEPTA-
HEXA-
OCTA-
NONA-
DECA-
TRANSITION METALS
-ATE
SUFFIXES
- Compounds that require the loss or gain of electrons to create strong forces and +/- charges
Rules for
Ionic
Bonding:
1.) Electrons are transferred from metals (cations) to nonmetals (anions) through the means of electrostatic attraction
2.) Electronegativity difference over 1.7 (>1.7)
3.) Pairing of cations and anions
4.) Overall charges of metals and non-metals must cancel each other out
-Overall Charge:
The subscript indicates the quantity of that element, which multiplies with its charge
1.) Two or more nonmetals together
2.) Electronegativity differences below 1.7 (<1.7)
3.) Bond energy:
-Shorter/stronger (more elctrostatic pull)
-Weaker/longer (less electronegativity
Rules for
Covalent
Bonds:
Properties:
- Very strong and interparticle forces due to electrostatic attraction in 3 dimensions within the crystal lattice
- High melting + boiling points
- Become electrolytes (ionic compounds that conduct electricity) when dissolved
- Form unique - shaped crystal lattices
- Hard and brittle
- Smallest unit is a formula unit used to form crystal lattices
- Subdivides into
Metals + non-metals (then into...)
~Transition metals
~Polyatomic ions

-Atoms involved in sharing electrons in overlapping atom orbitals
Properties:
- Weaker bonds
- Low melting + boiling points
- Non conductors (of electricity)
- Soft
- Low intermolecular forces ( H- bonding and dipole-dipole - Polar covalent molecules, London Dispersion Forces - non- polar covalent molecules)
- Smallest unit is a molecule
- Subdivides into
pure
and
polar


Covalent
Compound Examples:
P4O10
NH3
N20
SiO2
NO
SF6
PBr5
H20
Created

and
Edited
by:

Emily Mueller

Mia Cathell

Lindsey Mesina

Emily Zohoranacky
Ionic
Compound Examples:
Polyatomic Ions
of
Ionic
Bonds Examples:
Ba(NO3)2
KMnO4
Na3 [Fe(CN)6]
Al (HC2H302)3
Na2SO4
Mg (OH)2
Li3PO4
Cs (NO2)
Ni(OH)3
Na2S2O3
*
5H20

Transition Metals
of
Ionic
Bonds Examples:
SnO2
FeS
TiO2
Cu2S
SnO
Fe2S3
CoCl2
*
2H2O
1.) Electronegativity difference between 0.3 and 1.7
2.) Electrons shared, but pulled towards more electronegative atom
3.) 2 or more nonmetals

Rules for
Polar

Covalent

Bonds:
1.)
Rules for

Pure

Covalent

Bonds:
Polar

Covalent

Examples:
P4O10
H20
SF6
PBr5
NO
SiO2
N20
NH3
MgSO4

*
7H20
CoCl2

*
6H20


N204
PbO2
H2S
NO2
BF3
SiBr4
CCl4
XeF4
Na2S2O3

*
5H20
CoCl2
*
2H20
N204
PbO2
H2S
NO2
BF3
SiBr4
CCl4
XeF4
-means
one
-does not include the first element
-Examples:
NO
N2O


-means
two
-Ex:
SiO2
N20
H20
N2O4
PbO2
NO2
CoCl2
*
2H20
-means
three
-Ex:
NH3
BF3
-means
four
-Ex:
N2O4
SiBr4
-means
five
-Ex:
PBr5

Na2S2O3

*
5H20
-means seven
-Ex:
MgSO4

*
7H20

-means
six
-Ex:
SF6
SCl2
CoCl2

*
6H20
KI
Cu2S
SnO
Ca3N2
TiO2
FeS
Ba(NO3)2
NH4Cl
KMnO4
CoCl2
*
2H20




MgS
MgH2
NO2
Li3N
Ca3P2
ZnO
MnO2
PbO
AgCl


PbS
CoCl2
*
6H20
MgSO4
*
7H2O
NaNO3
Al(NO2)3
Ca[Fe(CN)4]
Cu2SO4
Na3PO4
NH4C2H3O2



Fe3(PO4)2
FeSO4
Ni(OH)3
KSCN
LiPO4
Mg(OH2)
Al(HC2H3O2)
Na3[Fe(CN)6]
Cs(NO2)
Na2S2o3

*

5H20
ZnO
MnO2
PbO
AgU
PbS
CoCl2

*

6H2O
MgSO4
*

7H20
NaNO3
Al(NO3)3
Ca[Fe(CN)4]
Cu2SO4
Na3PO4
NH4C2H3O4
Fe3(PO4)2
FeSO4
KSCN

Electrons are evenly shared
2.)
Electronegativity difference is less than 0.3 (<0.3)
3.)
Usually found as a single element bonded together, where its subscript indicates the quantity of that element
Ex:
- Diatomic (2x)
- Triatomic (3x)
- Etc.
-means
nine
-means
ten
-Ex:
P4O10
-means
eight
Rules for

Metals + Non-Metals
of

Ionic

Bonds:
1.) Used as an ending for all compounds, except certain polyatomic ions
2.) The bonding within a Polyatomic ion is covalent but when a polyatomic ion is in a compound, it will be an ionic compound
Naming Rules for

Polyatomic ions

of

Ionic

Compounds
1.) Follows the
metals + non-metals
naming rules
-If the overall charge is positive, thus acting like a
metal
, it will be be placed at the front of the formula name
The polyatomic ion acting as a
metal
would, itself, have a suffix "-ium"
The ending suffix of the compound would then be "-ide" only if the countering
non-metal
is an element derived from the periodic table
Follow the subsequent rules if the countering
"non-metal"
is a polyatomic ion
- If the overall charge is negative, thus acting like a
non-metal
, it will be placed at the back of the formula
The following points are strictly used by polyatomic ions and not by other elements or compounds
<Note: the subscript attached to the oxygen at the end of the ion, and not the total compound, affects the oxidation state of the

polyatomic ion

as a whole. Thus...>
a.) The suffix "-ite" is placed at the end of the name, indicating a lower digital subscript and lower oxidation state
b.) The suffix "-ate" is placed at the end of the name, indicating a higher digital subscript and higher oxidation state
Rules for
Transition Metals
of

Ionic
Bonds:
1.) The cation/positively charged ion must be a transition metal
-Transition Metal:
An element with multiple charges in the "d-block"
3.) The anion's overall charge must counterbalance the transition metal's designated charge's overall charge
4.) Follows the rules of
metals + non-metals
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Ex:
Cu2S
AgU
Ex:
CoCl
*

2H20

CoCl2

*

6H20

FeS PbO
SnO ZnO
PbS



Ex:
Fe2S3
Ex:
TiO2
SnO2
MnO2
Metals and Non-Metals
Ionic

Bonds

Ex:
K
SCN
Mg
SO4

*

7H20
Na
NO3
Ba(
NO3
)
2
Al(
HC2H302
)
Fe3(
PO4
)2
Na2S2O3
*
5H20
- Note: The bonding of a polyatomic ion is covalent, but when a polyatomic ion is in a compound, it will be an ionic compound
Ex:
Cs(
NO2
)
Al(
NO2
)3
CCl4
XeF4
P4O10
COVALENT
COVALENT
Naming Rules for
Polar

Covalent

Compounds:

1.) Least electronegative atom is placed first and ending is constant
2.) Due to being directly derived form the periodic table, the second element's ending is dropped and gains the suffix '-ide'

3.) Greek/Latin prefixes used before elements to indicate quantity of an atom present as shown in the subscripts subscripts -
not used for first element in compound when only one of the first element is present

4.) When the first element's name begins with vowel, the "a" and "o" are dropped from the end of covalent compound prefixes



Metals:

-Located generally on left side of Periodic table, to the left of the metalloids
-Generally create positive ions
-Would lose electrons to become stable

Non-Metals:
-Located on right side of table, to the right of the metalloids
-Mostly have negative charges when forming ions
-Generally gains electrons to become stable
-Contain noble gases:
Stable atoms not found in compounds
Naming Rules
Ionic
Compounds:
1.) Place cation/positively charged ion at from of chemical formula
2.) Write anion/negatively charged ion next with its charge
3.) Use the Criss Cross Method to find the quantity of each element within the compound
-The charges of each element becomes the subscript quantity of its counter compound element
4.) Rewrite formulas without charges
Writing the Compound From the Name:

1.) Elements are written in the same
order as they are listed/named

2.) The prefix indicates the subscript in the chemical formula
= 5

= 6
= 2
= 4
= 3
= 1
Ex:
NH4
C2H3O2
NH4
Cl
Ca[Fe(
CN
)4]
Mg (
OH
)2
Na3 [Fe(
N
C)6]
Ni(
OH
)3

Naming Rules for

Pure

Covalent

Bonds:
1.) Since some elements are usually found in nature bonded to themselves, they would be referred as their periodic name
-Ex:

O2 (oxygen)
N2 (nitrogen)
2.) Others can be classified under the polar covalent naming rules (where the subscripts indicate the Greek/Latin prefix) but since they are single-word names, they would would not drop their endings and would fully keep their periodic name (similar to the polar covalent names of the first element listed)
-Ex:

H3 (trihydrogen)
O3 (trioxygen)
1.) Compounds are lowercase
2.) Elements of compounds are lowercase when mentioned alone
3.) The ending of the second binary name is dropped with the added suffix "-ide" when the name is directly derived from the periodic table
Naming Rules for
All Compounds:
1.) A cation/positively charged ion (or metal) must lose electron(s) to give the anion/negatively charged ion (or non-metals) and stabilize themselves
Transition Metals:
-located in middle portion of table
- have multiple possible bonding charges
2.) Does not include a transition metal or polyatomic ion
Naming Rules for
Metals + Non-Metals

Ionic
Bonds:
1.) Same as the ionic compound naming rules:
-Cation/positively charged particle (metal) is named first
Keeps periodic name
-Anion/negatively charged particle (non-metal) is named second
Since it is directly derived from the periodic table, it drops its ending and adds the suffix "-ide"
-Criss Cross Method
The charges of each element becomes the subscript (minus the charge) of its compound counter part
<Such as K would have a charge of +1 and I would have a charge of -1, their formula would now be K1I1>
-Final formula is written without the charges but with the criss crossed subscripts
<Since the charge of 1 is implied without having to write it, the final form would be KI>
Ex:
KI
Ca3N2
AgCl
Naming

Exception

to

Polar

Covalent

Bonds:
1.) Applies for
hydrates
, x(H20), when paired with an
anhydrous crystal
-
Anhydrous crystal's
naming and rules are based off of the
ionic
bonding nomenclature
2.) Prefixes of hydrates are based off of the normal rules for
polar

covalent
bonds
-However, the normal suffix of '-ide' does not apply as the
hydrate's
name is not directly derived from the periodic table
3.) The root of the
hydrate's
name is 'hydrate'
-Ex:
MgSO4

*
7H20
Na2S2O3

*
5H20
CoCl2

*
6H20
CoCl2

*
2H20

Naming Rules for
Transition Metals
of
Ionic
Bonds
1.) Follows the naming rules for
metals + non-metals
2.) The charge of the cation/positively charged metal that balances the anion/negatively charged non-metal becomes the written and corresponding Roman numeral, in terms of quantity, following the metal in parenthesis
Exception
to Naming and Rules of
Ionic
Compounds:
1.) The
anhydrous crystal,
when paired with a
hydrate
, follows the naming and rules of ionic compounds
- Specifically, it follows the branch it falls under
Metals + non-metals (then into...)
~Transition metals
~Polyatomic ions
2.) The hydrate follows the naming rules of the
polar
covalent

bond

exceptions
3.) The
anhydrous crystal's
charges are not affect by the
hydrate
at all
MgS
Li3N
Ca3P2
Rules for
Polyatomic Ions
of
Ionic
Compounds
1.) Follows the rules for
metals + non-metals
- The charge of the
polyatomic ion
is the overall charge, applying to the entire compound, and thus making the compound an
ION
when bonded to an element or other
polyatomic ion
to form an
ionic
compound
(See Note in Frame 48/Previous Frame)
- If the overall charge is positive, then it acts as a
metal
ion
- If the overall charge is negative, then it acts as a
non-metal
ion
- This overall charge then has to counter balance its opposing

metal or non-metal
- The subscript only applies to the element that it is attached too
- The only exception to the previous statement is when the subscript is linked to parenthesis around the
polyatomic ion
, then the overall charge is multiplied by that subscript as well as the quantity of each element within ion, distributing the subscript
of
IONIC
BONDS
of

IONIC

BONDS
of

IONIC

BONDS
Exceptions
to Naming Rules for
Polyatomic Ions
of
Ionic
Compounds
1.) Those that have roots, within the parenthesis and excluding the subscript, were once thought to be monotomic ions have the "-ide" suffix
- Ex:
Ca[Fe(
CN
)4]
Mg (
OH
)2
Na3 [Fe(
CN
)6]
Ni(
OH
)3
Fe
SO4
Li
PO4
Cu2
SO4
Na3
PO4
K
MnO4
NH4
C2H3O2
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