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Transcript of The Novel
Point of View
"An invented prose narrative that is usually long and complex and deals especially with human experience through a usually connected sequence of events"
circulating library opens in London
is published in America
Gothic novel: Horace Walpole’s
Castle of Otranto
Jane Austen enjoys a period of
fame but dies in 1816
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley publishes
Charles Dickens debuts with
a serialized novel
A Christmas Carol
; and Emily Brontë,
Herman Melville publishes
Mark Twain publishes
The Adventures of
H. G. Wells writes
The War of the Worlds
Thomas Mann writes
The Magic Mountain
Virginia Woolf publishes
F. Scott Fitzgerald publishes
"(1) : a medieval tale based on legend, chivalric love and adventure, or the supernatural
(2) : a prose narrative treating imaginary characters involved in events remote in time or place and usually heroic, adventurous, or mysterious"
The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe,
Richardson, and Fielding
. London: Chatto &
Windus, 1957. Print.
. New York:
Newsweek, 1975. Print.
Warren, F. M.
A History of the Novel Previous to the
. New York: H. Holt and Company, 1895.
Library of Congress
. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. <https://archive.org/stream/historyofnovelpr00war>.
novels, or novels written in a series of letters
aim for realistic speech patterns
Richardson: "The characters are various and natural; well distinguished and uniformly supported and maintained" (Watt 220).
a businessman and journalist
is certainly the first novel in the sense that it is the first fictional narrative in which an ordinary person’s daily activities are the centre of continuous literary attention” (Watt 76).
(1741, parody of
(1742, influenced by
“Fielding’s experience in the theatre obviously equipped him... for imposing a kind of dramatic order on an otherwise sprawling picaresque plot” (Freedman 16).
plot emphasized over character (Watt 292).
“While it inspired a whole genre known as the
novel (which recounts the adventures of a hero who is for one reason or another outside normal society), it is itself perhaps too formally incoherent to be a true novel. That is, no particular adventure of the don and his servant necessarily follows the one which precedes it, or necessarily leads up to the one which follows. Any one adventure is quite interchangeable with any other as far as placement in the book is concerned. Events don't produce inevitable, long-term consequences, as they do in the more carefully wrought novels of our time, and characters are similarly introduced at random, occupy their brief moment on the stage, and then completely disappear” (Freedman 9).
"... the motive which guides the entire story and crowns its end makes a plot. And a plot makes of a prose narrative, such as the epic romances are, a novel" (Warren 9).
“A casual connection operating through time replaces the reliance of earlier narratives on disguises and coincidences, and this tends to give the novel a much more cohesive structure” (Watt 23).
revealing the character's personality through his actions
specific analysis of the character's various states of mind.
Both can be combined
Character is presented with "crucial moral choices which bring [his/her] whole personality into play” (Watt 113).
"The angles at which the mirror was held were made to reflect reality as the novelist saw it" (Watt 123).
“a belief in the individual apprehension of reality through the senses” (Watt 14).
the novel is an "authentic report of human experience" (Watt 33).
provides "a close correspondence between life and art" (Watt 34).
gives the novel an air of authenticity.
Case Study: Bildungsroman
"coming-of-age" novel (German)
develops protagonist by showing how he/she overcomes challenges
hero emerges from struggles "battle-scarred but victorious" and transforms into “a whole being” capable of “functioning in the social world” (Freedman 125).
helpless heroine + vile villain
heroine is trapped in isolated castle
supernatural occurrences: "family portraits that groan and bleed, trapdoors leading to musty dungeons, mysterious rooms to which she is forbidden access, caskets opening in the dead of night” (Freedman 22).
18th Century Writers in England
by Miguel de Cervantes