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DSP PROCESSOR

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Hemangi Varu

on 23 September 2014

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Transcript of DSP PROCESSOR

DSP PROCESSOR
Architecture

4 parameters required:
Start of Circular Buffer
End of Circular Buffer
Step size
Pointer to most recent sample

Circular Buffering

Circular Buffering

Super Harvard Architecture

Very Large Instruction Word

Pipelining

DMA

Dedicated single cycle MAC instructions

Super Harvard Architecture

4 parameters required:
1)Start of Circular Buffer
2)End of Circular Buffer
3)Step size
4)Pointer to most recent sample

Circular Buffering

Features of DSP

STEPS IN EXECUTION OF AN FIR FILTER

2 cycles required

Task: a+b=?




3 cycles required

SHARC

Super Harvard Architecture

SHARC
Texas instrumentation dsp processors

Gene Frantz-product engineer in professional calculator product.

Paul Breedlove-his boss.

Larry Brantingham-chip architect.

Richard Wiggins-speech expert.

TMCO280



The speak and spell

Succeded the lil professor.

Helped in studies.

Project code-spelling bee

1st educational video game


What else can TI do with dsps except for toys…..

With this a family of dsp began at TI

Family name TMS320

1st member-tms32010

Introduced at ISSCC




16 bit modified fixed point Harvard architecture led by Ed Caudel

32 bit floating point Von Neumann architecture under Ray Simar.

Multiprocessing with crossbar interconnect led by Karl Guttag.

VLIW processor architecture led by Ray Simar.


Tms320 dynasties

T- texas instruments.

M-metal gate oxide,

S-standards
x-experimental use
p-prototype
c-custom
320 was the dsp code at TI

Nomenclature

5 MIPS

20 mhz clock.

58k transistors.

144 words of RAM.

1.5k words of ROM.



TMS32010 specs

Ray Simar.

Floating point and high level language.

Till now dsps were fixed point and assembly language based.

This meant lenghty instructions.

320c3x was mocked by the DSP community.

TI showed patience.

Harvard to Von Neumann

User friendly.


TMS320C3x

32mhz clock.

2kw ram

250k transistors.

High level languages like C/C++.

Improvements in specs

Dsp into multi core system.

6 communication ports connected to a multi processor.

Suit data flow in different ways.

Floating point so could perform intensive math functions using matrix.

Divide operation.

TMS320C4x

Demand for high performance.

Especially in image processing and video processing.

Thus, 8x followed 4x multiprocessor system.

RISC processor.

1 host and 4 dsps connected by a cross bar.

One flaw- nearly impossible to program.


TMS320C8X

40 mhz.

3.6m transistors.

2+ billion operations per second.


DSPs bring speed and power to diverse applications, including automotive, voice, audio, consumer, biometrics, aerospace, defense, test and measurement, industrial control and more.

It can help with specific software, design kits and reference designs.

Applications of DSP

Automation and process control.

Automotive and Transportation.

Communication and Telecomm.

Consumer and Portable electronics.

Health Tech.

Industrial.

Security and Safety.

Space, Avionics and Defense.

Featured Applications

Automation and process control

Automotive & Transportation

Communication and Telecomm

Consumer and Portable electronics

Health Tech

Industrial

Security and Safety

Space, Avionics & Defense

TMS320C40-6 PORTS.

TMS320C41-4 PORTS.

TMS320C42-2 PORTS.


MARKETS:
medical
military
3d graphics
WHY DSP ?
DSP
FLOATING POINT DSPs
FIXED POINT DSPs
Represents each number with a minimum of 16 bits.

Numbers are represented and manipulated in integer format.

There are four common ways that these 2^16=65,536 possible bit patterns can represent a number:

unsigned integer

signed integer

unsigned fraction notation

signed fraction format


Fixed point DSPs

1)
2)
3)
4)
represent each number with a minimun of 32 bits

The represented numbers are not uniformly spaced.

Composed of a mantissa and exponent

Floating point processor can also support integer representation and calculations.

All floating point Dsp's can also handle fixed point nos.
eg: SHARC processor


Floating point DSPs

The Program
The DSP chip is a piece of hardware that cannot function without the intelligence of a program.
A program is a series of instructions that perform certain functions.

Assemblers
Assemblers generate machine-level code from text instructions.
ADD A, B
111000100101010001001

High-Level Language
High-level languages are like assembly languages, but much friendlier.
Assembly languages have very basic instructions, such as multiply, add, and compare.
High-level languages have higher-level instructions, such as print, and repeat until equal to zero. Therefore, it is easier to write programs in high-level languages
Assembly and high-level programming languages make it possible to program DSPs to perform a variety of functions

Simulators
A DSP simulator is a software implementation of a DSP chip.
A simulator typically runs on a computer (PC or workstation), simulating almost all of the functionality of the DSP.
Emulators
An emulator allows us to directly control and debug the results of instructions executing on the DSP.
Modern emulators do not replace the DSP chip on the board but exert their control through a serial emulation scan path.

Debugger
A debugger interface is used to display program execution information in a useable format for the programmer.
The data displayed in the debugger windows is essentially a formatted data print of the contents of the DSP memory.
This memory is simply loaded into the PC using either an emulator or a communications link with the PC using appropriate software.


After the feasibility of the design is established through simulation, program design can begin.
First, the software is designed.
This stage determines the complexity and the modules of the code.
The modules of software are written and tested, and then the full system is put together and tested.
If everything works as required, the result is version 1.0 of the product on the market.
If it does not work as required, the process is repeated until it does.
When new requirements and improvements emerge as a result of user feedback, a new version is produced via the same process.
Development Cycle
FIXED POINT VS FLOATING POINT
Fixed point dsp are:-
1) cheaper
2) less power conumption
3) difficult to program
4) limited dynamic range

Floating point dsp are:-
1) easier to program
2) High precission
3) Wide dynamic range
4) Have large accuracy
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