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Texture-Flavor Interaction

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Curtis Luckett

on 10 May 2016

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Transcript of Texture-Flavor Interaction

Texture-Flavor Interaction Across the Lifespan
Curtis Luckett
Taste
+ Odor
+ Chemesthesis
Flavor
Oral Processing
Texture
Mastication
Hardness Crispness
Chewiness Rubberiness
Fibrousness Cohesiveness
Etc.
What We Don't Know
Are changes in flavor perception due to convergence in the brain or changes in diffusion kinetics?

How does texture effect odor compound release kinetics in solid foods?

How does chewing behavior change with age?

Do age-related changes in oral processing lead to altered flavor perception?
Texture-flavor interaction has been observed in solid and semi-solid foods, however not with consistency
(Mackey and Valassi, 1956; Pangborn and Szczesniack, 1974; Christensen, 1977; Hollowood and others, 2002)
(Kremer and others, 2007)
Texture - Flavor Interaction
In liquids, viscosity has been shown to suppress tastes and odors
Initial Characterization
Design flavored crackers that have 4 different texture levels, but no difference in amount of flavor compounds.

Two flavors will be used:
Spicy
Cheese

Crackers will be given to a small consumer group that will rate them for flavor and texture

Ensure the differences in texture are perceivable.

Examine texture using instrumental texture analysis
Sound recording + physical measurements
Chewing Duration
Number of Chews
Tongue Movement
Oral Processing

Masticatory muscle movements will be measured by electromyography (EMG).
How age modulates texture - flavor interaction
Examine texture-flavor interactions in different age groups

Have participants consume the crackers (experiment 1)
Oral processing
chewing and swallowing (EMG), tongue movement
Sensory attribute ratings
Texture, Flavor and Overall Liking

Possibility to use flavor release-EMG relationship model

Key area of interest will be how the relationship between texture, oral processing and flavor perception change across age groups
Texture - Orthonasal Olfaction
Flavor suppression is due to reduced flavor compound diffusion rates
Convergence of information in the nervous system
Sensory Changes - Lifespan
Aging changes various aspects of oral physiology
dental status
bite force
composition of saliva
muscle fatigue
Older Americans to have some of the highest malnutrition rates of any domestic demographic.
Sensory preferences change with age
Children prefer sweeter foods than adults
Saltiness is aversive or neutral to infants
(Amarantos and others, 2001)
Diffusion or Neural Integration?
Multisensory Integration
(MSI)
Sensory inputs are not received independently

When stimuli are congruent

sensory input can be integrated

Inverse effectiveness
Unisensory stimuli strength
MSI effectiveness
Flavor Release and Perception
Time-intensity scaling will be used to compare the perceived flavor perception over time.
The olfactory perception and brain response will be measured
4-24-2016
Unflavored semi-solids and solids of varying textures combined with olfactory stimulation using olfactometer
The olfactory Event Related Potential (ERP) will be compared across different textures and age groups
General decrease in sensory processing

Smell sensitivity declines
(Corso, 1981)
Experiment 1
Experiment 2
Experiment 2
Experiment 3
Experiment 4
Recently neural bases for MSI have been uncovered

Psychophysical evidence for many years
Churchland, 2011
Key area of interest will be the relationship between:
(Doty and others, 1984)
Time-intensity scaling will be used to compare the perceived flavor perception over time.
Cook and others, 2005
Salivary Output
Objectives
Investigate the flavor release of crackers with varying levels of crispness across different age groups.

Examine texture-flavor interactions in different age groups.

Determine how texture interacts with orthonasal odor.

Develop suggestions based on findings that will help increase eating enjoyment for older adults.
(Experiment 2)

Electroencephalography (EEG)
oral processing
texture
flavor release
flavor perception
(Shipp, 1999)
(Desor and others, 1975)
(Grinker and others, 1976)
Brown & Braxton, 2000
(Doty and others, 1984)
The flavor release will be measured via Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS).
(Morgan and others, 1997)
Amount of odor compound in nasal cavity only explains one part of flavor perception
(Leclerq and Blancher 2012)
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