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Chiang Kai Shek
Transcript of Chiang Kai Shek
The Chinese military and political leader of Kuomintang.
He was born on
October 31st, 1887
Chiang Kai Shek was born in
Fenghua, Zhejiang, China (Eastern Coastal Province)
-His father died when Chiang Kai Shek was 8 years old, so he was left to live with his relatives.
-Chiang Kai Shek's father used to be a wine merchant. After his death Chiang Kai Shek's family was in extreme poverty.
-Chiang Kai Shek was sent to Baoding to go to Baoding Military Academy.
-Chiang Kai Shek ran away from his relatives and joined the provincial army because he was interested in improving China's political struggle.
How He Kept
-Later he went to Tokyo to attend Military State College, and while he was there he became a follower of Sun Yat-Sen, who was the leader of the Nationalists (Kuomintang) at that time.
The End of Chiang Kai Shek's Life
Chiang died on April 5th, 1975. He suffered from a heart attack and pneumonia.
The Beginning of His Life
Who Is He?
After Chiang fled to Taiwan, he remained president of the Chinese Republic. He hoped to re-take mainland China, but it did not happen.
Chiang initiated an attack on Mao and the communist forces, but he lost the civil war. He then fled mainland China to Taiwan.
Before his death, he led Taiwan into a very prosperous state. He ruled Taiwan for 26 years.
Power In Taiwan
He implemented martial laws on the Taiwanese people for more than 30 years.
He shot people who were against him and those who protested during the 2-28 massacre.
He killed many people who were against the government, or were suspected of being Communist spies. This was the called the "White Terror"
He regulated the media, and allowed only certain hours of Taiwanese television shows to be played.
The Flag of the Republic of China
It is known as the white sun in the blue sky and the red land.
The rays of the sun symbolizes the 12 traditional Chinese hours (equals to two hours) in a day and the 12 months in a year.
The "red earth" was added by Sun Yat-Sen, and it symbolize the blood and sacrifices of the people who fought to overthrow Qing dynasty.
The three colours symbolizes the Three Principles of the People. They also symbolize liberty, equality, and fraternity, just like the French flag.
The white sun in the blue sky is designed by Lu Hao-Tung. It is also the symbol of Kuomintang.
It is also commonly known as the flag of Taiwan.
Modernized Taiwan by establishing the Republic of China government in Taipei. Taiwan is now recognized as an independent nation-state. He improved the economy of the island by land reforms and benefited the trades for Taiwan.
He is the leader of the Nationalist party called Kuomintang. He followed the footsteps of Sun Yat-Sen, the person who established the party. He took part in revolutionary movements to overthrow the Qing dynasty. He led military campaigns to unify the country under Kuomintang.
Power in China
-Chiang Kai Shek took part in the revolutionary movement to overthrow the Qing dynasty, and to set up a Chinese republic with Sun Yat-Sen
He eliminated the communists and opposing Nationalists. During the Shanghai Massacre, many communists were killed, arrested, or missing.
At that time, he had support from the Americans.
He was the successor of Sun Yat-Sen, who was liked and well-known.
In 1924, Sun sent Chiang to study the Soviet political and military system in Moscow. He met Trotsky and other Soviet leaders and thought that the Soviet way was not suitable for China.
He married Soong Mei-Ling, who was the younger sister of Sun Yat-Sen's widow. She was an important political figure. Chiang was only able to speak Japanese and Chinese, and Soong was able to speak fluent English.
Later when Chiang succeeds Sun, he broke the alliance between the Nationalists and the Communists by issuing the Shanghai Massacre.
Chiang increase the power of Kuomintang by eliminating the Chinese Communists using military forces.
Rule In Taiwan
During the Second Japanese Sino war the Nationalist party and the Communist party were forced to collaborate to drive out the Japanese army.
After the Japanese surrendered the civil war between the Communists and the Nationalists continued. The Communists took over Beijing and were gaining control.
Chiang and his government were forced to exile to Taiwan, where he established the government, the Republic of China and where he remained until his death.
Chiang is viewed as both a hero and a villain by different people. In the past, many people from Taiwan glorifies Chiang, and many people from Mainland China perceive Chiang as villainous.
-In 1924, Chiang went to Moscow to learn about the Soviet's military and political ways.
-In 1925, Sun Yat-Sen died and Chiang succeeded him because of the power vacuum. Chiang launched the Northern Expedition where Kuomintang overthrew the warlord-backed Beijing government and established a new government in Nanjing.
In 1927, Chiang initiated a civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists. The Shanghai massacre occurred, where many communists were purged by Chiang's military forces.
In 1937, Chiang and Mao were forced to create an temporary alliance to fight against the colonial power of the Japanese during the Second Sino Japanese War.
In 1946 Chiang broke the alliance with the Communists and the civil war continued.
There is a memorial hall named after him in memory of him in Taiwan.
His son, Chiang Jing Guo succeeded him and followed his footsteps. His son allowed more advancements in Taiwan and brought some benefits to the land.
He helped overthrow the Qing dynasty and the warlords in China.
He led the Northern Expedition which unified the control over China.
He helped Taiwanese economy to bloom, and also helped Taiwan maintain a good relationship with America.
In 1927, he attacked the Communists, thousands were killed, arrested, or went missing. This resulted around 5000 to 6000 deaths, a broken alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists, and the civil war.
Second Sino Japanese War:
He stopped the advancement of the Japanese into the Western/ Southern China by destroying the dike at Zhaokou. The water flooded thousand of square kilometers of farmland. Millions of people were left homeless, and around 800,000 people drowned.
Chiang suggested that Changsha should be burned to the ground, so that the Japanese would gain nothing from it when they conquer it. The fire killed more than 3,000 people and burned 90% of the city's buildings.
During the period of martial laws around 3,000-4,000 Taiwanese were executed and 140,000 were imprisoned if they were suspected as Communist spies, or if they opposed the government.
The 228 incident occurred during this time. It was an uprising against the government in Taiwan that was suppressed by Kuomintang. This resulted in a massacre of 10,000 to 30,000 civilians.
3,000 crates of treasure from China's forbidden city was stolen and shipped to Taiwan during the final months of the Chinese civil war.
Chiang's wife, Soong May-Ling lived to the age of 106.
The flag of Republic of China cannot be used by Taiwan during the Olympics because it created conflicts. Another flag is used. The Taiwanese anthem can also not be sang, and the National Flag Anthem is sung instead.
During his rule, the Taiwanese anthem must be sang before watching a movie at the theaters.