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Analysis of Hydrocarbons

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Cristina Corpuz

on 14 May 2015

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Transcript of Analysis of Hydrocarbons

HYDROCARBONS
Analysis of Hydrocarbons
ADIAO, AWAT, CORPUZ, GIANAN, ESCALONA
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
INTRODUCTION:
AROMATICS (ARENES)
TWO TYPES OF ALIPHATICS
TWO TYPES OF AROMATICS
METHODOLOGY
CONCLUSIONS
NITRATION
REACTION
ALIPHATICS

Hydrocarbon compounds that do not exhibit conjugated πpi bonds
Simple organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen atoms
Each atoms has 4 bonds

They can be saturated (single bond)
unsaturated (double or triple bond)
acyclic (w/o rings)
cyclic (w/ rings)
Hydrocarbon compounds that exhibit conjugated (alternating with single bonds) pi bonds
SATURATED
UNSATURATED
Lacks pi bonds
These are alkanes
Contains pi bonds
These are alkenes and alkynes
NON-ALKYLATED
ALKYLATED
Un-branched Arene
Branched Arene
OBJECTIVES
To differentiate various types hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic, saturated, unsaturated, alkylated or non alkylated)
To device a scheme to distinguish hydrocarbon from each type
To characterize the unknown sample
Example of Electrophilic aromatic substitution
Electron-withdrawing nitro group, once in contact with an aromatic ring, will deactivate the ring towards further reaction with electrophiles
Has selective reaction with aromatic compounds
Reagent: Conc. H2SO4
Positive Visible result: Yellow Oil
Differentiate Aromatics to Aliphatics
+ for Aromatics
Therefore, nitration test can be used to determine if the unknown hydrocarbon is aromatic (with reaction) or aliphatic (no reaction)
BROMINE
TEST
Addition Reaction
Differentiate Unsaturated and Saturated hydrocarbons
Reagent: 5% Br in CH2Cl2
+ Visible Result: Colorless Solution
Shows positive result for Unsaturated hydrocarbons
To detect un-saturation
PERMANGANATE
TEST
Oxidation Reaction
Differentiates Alkylated and non alkylated aromatics
Reagent: KMnO4
+ Visible Result: Brown precipitate
+ Result: Usaturated and Alkylated hydrocarbons
This allows the differentiation between a substituted aromatic ring and a non substituted one
Based from the results of the parallel chemical analyses of the unknown samples. . .
STANDARD RESULTS
THREE TYPES OF TEST
USED
Nitration Test
Bromine (Bromination) Test
Permanganate (Basic Oxidation) Test
Without reactivity or showed negative results to any test procedures is a
SATURATED, ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON (i.e. hexane)
With a positive result in the bromination and oxidation reactions but negative in nitration reaction is an
UNSATURATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON (i.e. cyclohexane)
With a positive result for nitration but negative to both bromination and oxidation reactions is a NON ALKYLATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBON . (i.e. naphthalene)
With positive resultsto both nitration and oxidation reactions but negative on brominations is an ALKYLATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (i.e. toluene)
REFERENCES
(1) Klein, D. (2012). Organic Chemistry. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
(2) Mayo, D., Pike, R. & Forbes, D. (2011). Microscale Oragnic Laboratory: with
multistep and multiscale syntheses. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
(3) Solomons, T.W.G. & Fryhle, C. (2000). Organic Chemistry, 7th edition. USA: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc.
(4) Carey, F. (2011). Organic Chemistry. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
(5) Smith, J. (2011). Organic Chemistry. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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