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Jessica Beardsell_Australia_dry,flat

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Jessica Beardsell

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of Jessica Beardsell_Australia_dry,flat

By Jessica Beardsell Australia Why is Australia so dry
and
what are the consequences of it's dryness? Human and Physical Consequences The main factors are :

A dominance of high pressure systems
The influence of El Nino (a warm ocean current in the Pacific.)
The flatness of the Australian continent
The compact shape of the continent
The cold ocean currents off the west coast Distribution and Location Northern Australian - wet summer and dry winter.
Eastern Australia - wet summer and low winter rainfall.
Southwest Australia - wet winter and dry summer.
Arid (dry) area extending from the northwest coast across the centre and reaching the south coast. Limits a farmers ability to produce crops and healthy livestock. Why is it so dry? Human Physical There is little veggetation because of the lack of weater whish means the becomes degraded. Most of Australia's population live near the coast were there is a better water supply. People that do live in the centre must use pumps to access water from underground. Because there is little water and not many rivers the landscape is quite flat. Any water that does acumulate evaporates verry quickly leaving salt pans. Adaptaions of flora and fauna Flora Fauna Long roots that reach deep into the ground to extract or store water Strong, thick bark to reduce the rate of evapouration Some remaine dormant during dry periods of the year, then springing to life when water becomes available. Some animals are only active at night when it is coolest and retreat into a den or burrow in the day. Other animals are a pale colour to ensure they take in less heat. Some remain dormant deep in the ground until rain falls then they emerge, breed, lay eggs and dig down again. Why is Australia
so flat
and
what are the consequences of
its flatness? Distribution and Location Most of Australia is flat however there are numerous montain ranges although they are they are verry small compared with the rest of the world. The montains of Western Australia lie also mainly along the coast. The mountains of South Australia mainly run in a north-easterly direction. The main Dividing Range, runs most of the waty down the east coast of Australia. Why is it so flat? We're not and never have been on the boundary of a tectonic plate and so all of our mountains have been formed by less dramatic forces than ones found in boundary zones e.g. the Himalayas, the Andes etc. Australia is a very old continent and any big mountains we had have be eroded and are a lot smaller that when they were formed. Human and Physical Consequences Human Physical Australias flat landscape results in a low number of rivers flowing to flat central areas, which is why few people live in the desert and out back regions of Australia. Increased agriculture because crops are easier to grow on flat ground. Because Australia is so flat when there is a large amount of rain it has no where to go and so greats flood plains. Our flat lamdscape resulting in a low number of rivers also means that few plants can grow in the central parts of Australia. When it does rain in the central parts of australia there are no slopes for it to run off instead it settles, bringing the salt out of the ground so that when it evaporates salt pans are created. Adaptions of Flora and Fauna Because Australia is so flat their are few rivers in the centre which means animals in the desert and outback have to addapt to the low water supplies. Flora Fauna Many plants grow horizontaly rather than verticals because there is no need to compete for sunlight in the vast, flat, Australian landscape. Because there is little protection from the wind and sun plants tend to be small with tough leaves. Grasses can regenerate from their base as an adaptation againts grazing animals in flat lands. Animals in flat landscapes often travel in herds for protection because there is little cover from predators. Due to Australia's flatness animals have few places to hide from predators and so have adapted to run fast. In flat landscapes there are no large trees or caves to shelter in so some animals adapt to dig burrows instead.
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