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Carbon Black/Rayon Car Tires Life-Cycle Analysis

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by

Angielyn Flauta

on 20 May 2015

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Transcript of Carbon Black/Rayon Car Tires Life-Cycle Analysis


Transport 1
(transferring latex from tanks, to air tight containers, to production factories)
Tire Use
Transport 2
(transportation of final product around the world)
Resource Aquisition and Manufacture of Feedstock for Tires
Carbon Black/Rayon Car Tires
by: Angie Flauta
Product Life-Cycle Analysis
Inputs
Resources:
Para Rubber Tree
Latex (excreted from the Para Rubber Tree)
Energy
dead heap per car tire: 8 kg
air consumption per car tire: 46 kg
water consumption per car tire: 560 kg
cumulative energy input per car tire: 211 MJ
Chemical Industries
Steel Industries
Textile Industries
Outputs
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 10.8 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 1.85 kg
Overburden per tire: 6.76 kg
Waste per tire: 3.2 kg
Environmental Impacts
Negative impact on waste water per tire: 1.85 kg
Global warming potential per tire: 14 kg Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Acidification potential per tire: 0.0718 kg Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.0037 kg Phosphate equivalent
Inputs
Fuel
Natural Gas
Petroleum
Energy
Dead heap per tire: 0.008 kg
Air consumption per tire: 5 kg
water consumption per tire: 1.3 kg
Outputs
Emissions
Carbon Dioxide
NOx
NM VOC
CO
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 1.5 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0.054 kg
Overburden per tire: 0.006 kg
Waste per tire: 0.004 kg
Environmental Impacts
Negative impact on waste water per tire: 0.054 kg
Cumulative energy input per tire: 16 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 1.5 kg Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Acidification potential per tire: 0.0123 kg Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.0021 kg Phosphate equivalent
Tire Production
Inputs
Materials
Cardboard (packaging)
Foam (packaging)
Rubber
Bisphenol
Peroxide
Heat
Fuel (hard coal used per tire: 2.16 kg)
Sulfur used per tire: 0.20 kg
Process water used per tire: 194.81 kg
Cooling water used per tire: 434.25 kg
Lignite used per tire: 3.46 kg
Latex used per tire: 2.57 kg
Iron ore used per tire: 1.17 kg
Tire packaging
Energy
Dead heap per tire: 7 kg
Air consumption per tire: 22 kg
Water consumption per tire: 24 kg
Outputs
Emissions and Waste per Tire
Sulfur Dioxide (0.25 kg)
Carbon Monoxide (6.81 kg)
Carbon Dioxide (576.74 kg)
NOx (0.24 kg)
Nitrous Oxide (0.057 kg)
NM VOC (0.35 kg)
Water vapor (7.83 kg)
Dust (1.02 kg)
Methane (0.32 kg)
Waste water from processing (270.31 kg)
Waste water from cooling (422.83 kg)
Solid and liquid waste (1.33 kg)
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 15 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0.00016 kg
Overburden per tire: 6.82 kg
Waste per tire: 1.2 kg
Environmental Impacts
Negative impact on waste water per tire: 0.00016 kg
Cumulative energy input per tire: 104 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 7.3 kg Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Acidification potential per tire: 0.0103 kg Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.001 kg Phosphate equivalent
Inputs
Fuel
Natural Gas
Petroleum
Energy
Dead heap per tire: 0.008 kg
Air consumption per tire: 5 kg
water consumption per tire: 1.3 kg
Emissions
Carbon Dioxide
NOx
NM VOC
CO
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Outputs
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 1.5 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0.054 kg
Overburden per tire: 0.006 kg
Waste per tire: 0.004 kg
Negative impact on waste water per tire: 0.054 kg
Cumulative energy input per tire: 16 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 1.5 kg Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Acidification potential per tire: 0.0123 kg Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.0021 kg Phosphate equivalent
Environmental Impacts
Inputs
Energy
Dead heap per tire: 13 kg
Air consumption per tire: 2,027 kg
water consumption per tire: 44 kg
Outputs
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 567 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0.055 kg
Overburden per tire: 43.5 kg
Waste per tire: 0.21 kg
Environmental Impacts
Negative impact on waste water per tire: 0.055 kg
Cumulative energy input per tire: 7,520 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 601 kg Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Acidification potential per tire: 0.54 kg Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.05 kg Phosphate equivalent
Transport 3
(transportation to recycling facilities)
Inputs
Energy
Dead heap per tire: 0.008 kg
Air consumption per tire: 5 kg
water consumption per tire: 1.3 kg
Fuel
Natural Gas
Petroleum
Outputs
Emissions
Carbon Dioxide
NOx
NM VOC
CO
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 1.5 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0.054 kg
Overburden per tire: 0.006 kg
Waste per tire: 0.004 kg
Environmental Impacts
Negative impact on waste water per tire: 0.054 kg
Cumulative energy input per tire: 16 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 1.5 kg Carbon Dioxide equivalent
Acidification potential per tire: 0.0123 kg Sulfur Dioxide equivalent
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.0021 kg Phosphate equivalent
Recycling
Retreads
Fuel for cement production
Tire-burning power plants
Inputs
Outputs
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 19.05 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 1.38E-06
Overburden per tire: 0.00666 kg
Waste per tire: 0.03599 kg
Cement Plant with Worn Tires
Resources: 150.49 kg
Air: 62.05 kg
Water: 30.40 kg
Dead heap: 9.62 kg
Retreading
Tire Power Plant
Resources: 21.81 kg
Air: 35.65 kg
Water: 22.95 kg
Dead heap: 2.9 kg
Resources: 5.82 kg
Air: 51.36 kg
Water: 111.74 kg
Dead heap: 0.00673 kg
Retreading
Cement Plant with Worn Tires
Tire Power Plant
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 11.32 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0.01372 kg
Overburden per tire: 2.909 kg
Waste per tire: 0.02325 kg
Atmospheric emissions per tire: 76.71 kg
Emissions into water per tire: 0 kg
Overburden per tire: 9.52 kg
Waste per tire: 0.0229 kg
Retreading
Cement Plant with Worn Tires
Tire Power Plant
Environmental Impacts
Cumulative energy input per tire: 152.18 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 16.21 kg
Acidification potential per tire: 0.00149 kg
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.01186 kg
Cumulative energy input per tire: 147.45 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 11.45 kg
Acidification potential per tire: 0.00640 kg
Nutrification potential per tire: 0.05295
Cumulative energy input per tire: 197.28 MJ
Global warming potential per tire: 32 kg
Acidification potential per tire: 0.0116 kg
Nutrification potential per tire: 0,106 kg
Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts and Make the Product More Sustainable
Substituting rayon with polyester to reduce the amount of process water used, because rayon takes more water to manufacture.
Substituting rayon with polyester also reduces the negative impact on waste water.
Using synthetic fibers instead of steelcord could reduce the amount of waste generated.
Developing cars with lower rolling resistance reduces negative environmental (global warming, acidification, and nutrification) potentials of tires.
Partial substitution of silica for carbon black leads to greater fuel efficiency.
Simply paying more attention to the tires you own and giving it good care as to not damage and quickly dispose of it.
Tires do not break down in landfills, so recycling tires every time they are disposed of can greatly reduce environmental impacts adn make tires more sustainable.
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