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COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING
Transcript of COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING
Main differences between Audiolingualism and CLT
Theory of language
The Communicative Approach in language teaching starts from a theory of language as communication. Chomsky´s, Hymes´s and Hallliday´s theories contributed to this approach.
Theory of learning
Little has been written about CLT´s learning theory. However, there are certain principles which can be inferred from CLT practices.
It is an approach which focus on the functional and communicative potential of language and communicative proficiency rather than on the mere mastery of structures.
It aims to:
make communicative competence the goal of language teaching.
develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication.
The origins of CLT are found in Britain and date from the late 1960s but it was in 1972 that the linguist D. A. Wilkins proposed a functional and communicative definition of language that could serve as a basis for developing communicative syllabuses for language teaching. Until then, English was taught to foreigners by practicing basic structures in meaningful situation-based activities.
This approach was called Situational Language Teaching.
STL was criticized by Chomsky and many British applied linguists. They stated that there was no point in trying to predict language on the basis of situational events. For them, this approach was incapable of accounting for the fundamental characteristic of language - the creativity and uniqueness of individual sentences.
Communicative Language Teaching
Attends to structure more than meaning.
Language learning is learning structures, sounds, or words.
Mastery or ¨over-learning¨ is sought.
Drilling is a central technique.
Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought.
Translation is forbidden at early levels.
Reading and writing are deferred till speech is mastered.
Linguistic competence is the desired goal.
Accuracy, in terms of formal correctness, is a primary goal.
Meaning is paramount.
Language learning is learning to communicate.
Effective communication is sought.
Drilling may occur, but peripherally.
Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.
Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it.
Reading and writing can star from the first day, if desired.
Communicative competence is the desired goal.
Fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal.
For Chomsky, the focus of linguistic theory was to characterize the abstract abilities speakers possess that enable them to produce grammatically correct sentences. He introduces the concept of competence.
Hymes´s theory held that such a view of linguistic theory was sterile, that linguistic theory needed to be seen as part of a more general theory incorporating communication and culture. He coins the term communicative competence in order to contrast with Chomsky´s view of competence.
Halliday has elaborated a powerful theory of the functions of language which complements Hymes´s view of communicative competence.
LANGUAGE THAT IS MEANINGFUL TO THE LEARNER SUPPORTS THE LEARNING PROCESS.
ACTIVITIES THAT INVOLVE REAL COMMUNICATION PROMOTE LEARNING
ACTIVITIES IN WHICH LANGUAGE IS USED FOR CARRYING OUT MEANINGFUL TASK PROMOTE LEARNING
There are several proposals and models for what a syllabus might look in CLT.
Types of syllabus
structures plus functions
functional spiral over a structural core
structural, functional and instrumental
Types of learning and teaching activities
The range of exercises types and activities compatible with a communicative approach is unlimited, provided that such exercises enable learners to attain the communicative objectives of the curriculum. However, major activity types in CLT are:
Functional communication activities
Social interaction activities
In CLT, learners are mainly seen as negotiators. They should contribute as much as they gain in the interaction with the group.
The teacher´s main role is
to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom.
Other roles assumed for teachers
GROUP PROCESS MANAGER
The role of instructional materials
Materials primary role is promoting communicative language use. It is possible to classify materials in three types.
Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.
Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities.
Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
Communication involves the integration of different language skills.
Learning is a process of creative construction.