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AP Absolutism & Revolution

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Dawn Ashby

on 8 March 2016

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Transcript of AP Absolutism & Revolution

The 3rd estate declares itself the National Assembly, since they represented the nation, in June 14, 1789. They meet in a tennis court (Tennis Court Oath) when they find themselves locked out of the Estates-General by the 1st & 2nd estates.

Rumors & panic spread throughout France. Women are upset over the price of bread. Mobs surround Versailles. The king & queen are taken from Versailles. A new constitution was written & a constitutional monarchy was established in 1791 (National Assembly=legislative, king=executive). The Church's power greatly reduced. Clergy are now citizens.
King Louis XVI
Marie Antoinette
1st estate-Clergy
paid no taxes, held positions of power
100,000 people
2nd estate-nobles
no taxes, held positions of power;
controlled 97% of the wealth
400,000 people
3rd estate-commoners (preachers, merchants, peasants)
-wanted more of a voice in gov't
-98% of France’s population (24 million)
-Bourgeoisie (middle class)-Made $ like nobles, but treated as peasants
-Urban lower class
-Peasant farmers-Paid corvée – tax paid with work, not $

Storming of the Bastille
-July 14, 1789
-Prison & armory represented heavy-handedness of the monarchy
-People wanted arms & gunpowder defend the National Assembly (rumor had it that Louis was going to dismantle it)

Absolutism & Revolution notes
Absolutism-
one ruler holds all of the power
pgs 594-611
Absolute monarchs believed God created the monarchy & that the monarch was God's representative on earth (
divine right
). The monarch answered to God & NOT the people
Post-Middle Ages European monarchs gained power
b/c:
-
feudalism declined
so
power
was now
centralized
-
church authority weakened
-1600s-
conflict & war
-taxes were raised to support
armies
which led to
unrest & revolt
As a result,
monarchs increased control
over their people (religion, economy, social)
-Also
shrugged off
the
nobility
&
representative bodies
(like Parliament)
Examples of absolutist leaders:
Tokugawa of Japan
Peter the Great of Russia
Louis XIV of France
"The Sun King"
b/c all of the power radiated from him
-Came to power in 1696
-Prior to his rule, Russia was geographically isolated, different
-Eastern Orthodox
-cut off from Europe during Renaissance & Age of Exploration b/c of the Mongols
-Peter visited western Europe; wanted to westernize Russia
-Russians resisted
Negative
moves
-
Abolished the patriarch
(head of the Orthodox Church)-r
educed power of landowners/nobles
-
modernized army by raising taxes
Positive
moves
-started the 1st Russian newspaper
-opened new schools;
encouraged education
-encouraged people to leave Russia to study
-est.
St. Petersburg
as the
new capital
-"For you know yourself that, though a thing be good & necessary, our people will not do it unless forced to." -Czar Peter I
Be able to describe how Louis XIV was an absolute monarch
-Took over in 1643 at age 14
-His cardinal initially exercised control; raised taxes
-People rebelled so king increased control
-excluded nobles from council meetings, increased power of gov't agents, no longer promised religious freedom for French Protestants (Huguenots) so they fled; hurt economy
-encouraged art to glorify him (not religion or humans)
-built up his army & attacked other European countries; France powerful
-est. colonies
-war & palace of Versailles led to higher taxes
-poor harvests
-peasants crushed
-when he died in 1715, French rejoiced
Ticket out the door:
King Louis XIV was known as the Sun King because all of the power radiated from him. Draw your own symbol that shows your absolutist power and describe it.
King believes he has the divine right to rule
The Church still has influence
Create a children's book about
the French Revolution in at least 6 pages. Each page should have pictures, narration describing the event and word bubbles. Use pgs 651-664 to help you and the student notes/illustrations given to you.

Louis XVI deposed when Jacobins take power. Convention est. Radical.
Louis was beheaded (found guilty of treason) in 1793 & Marie Antoinette
was beheaded during the Reign of Terror
Counter revolutions & economic problems followed the revolution. National Convention (new legislative body chosen by the people) now ruled by Jacobins (radicals) who say no to a monarchy; now France is a republic


-Napoleon-military officer
-est. French rule in Italy (from Austria)
-Invaded Egypt (wanted Red Sea access, but British win)
-When he returns to France, he joins & eventually overthrows the Directory. He becomes consul for life and then crowns himself emperor 2 years later
-People of France "vote" for the constitution that makes him the leader

http://www.history.com/shows/modern-marvels/videos/guillotine
Looming bankruptcy leads Louis to imposes taxes on the nobility. Louis calls a meeting of the Estates-General (all 3 classes) to approve the tax, the 1st time since 1614. Each estate had one vote. Who will win??
Liberty, equality, & fraternity
Robespierre is eventually beheaded in 1795 when
yet another gov't is established
-upper middle class in charge
-2 houses in legislative branch
-5 men in executive branch (Directory)

-ends corruption
-uniform laws (Civil Code/Napoleonic Code 1804)
-protect private property, education/employment based on merit
-efficient tax collection
-Concordat-agreement with Church
-French state keeps church lands, but pays clergy's salaries
-Catholicism preferred faith, but Protestants & Jews okay
Order is finally established when Napoleon takes over...but is he just another absolutist leader?

1/2 revenue=war debt
1/4=armed forces
-National Assembly writes Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen
-equality of all men, sovereignty lies with people, right to liberty, property, security
Compare the
Declaration of the Rights of Man vs. Woman

Robespierre's Reign of Terror (1793-1794) killed @ 40,000 people (mostly 3rd estate); imprisoned 300,000
-Committee of Public Safety-protect Revolution from enemies
-wanted to build a "republic of virtue"; restructure France
-cult of reason-new calendar, no church, some rights for women
-anyone not radical enough or anyone who challenged his power=killed
-radicals (change gov't), moderates, conservatives (keep monarchy)

2:17, 32:30, 1:04:50, 1:13:57, 1:19:30, 1:39
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